Superficial sediment and water samples were taken in December 2012 and February and Mars 2013, from two different salinity ponds, the concentrator pond M1 (salinity 20% (w/v)) and the crystallizer
pond TS18 (salinity 38% (w/v)), and immediately stored cold until processing in laboratory within 2 hours of collection.
The base cone contains an internal process-air diffuser that is bolted in, rather than welded as is typical in the industry, so that it can be removed if the system is later converted to a crystallizer
This adhering of the silica gel on some of the spherulite crystals is because of not being properly cleaned while taking crystal out of the crystallizer
. Figure 1(c) shows single crystal of GdCaHM with cracks.
Rapid contact seeding--high concentrations of cream of tartar at refrigerated temperatures (but warmer than above), either using tank batch/seed/mix/filter techniques similar to above, or using crystallized beds, including fluidized crystallizers
, with separation of wine from precipitated or added crystals.
Ice crystals are formed in the crystallizer
, and grow to a larger size in the growth vessel.
--The mixed flow (point 2 in the diagram) is directed to the isothermic crystallizer
of sodium chloride in which the process finishes at the final temperature of 80[degrees]C;
(i) Subsystem (A1) consists of two-stage ejector, barometric condenser (used to generate the pressure of 175 mm of Hg), concentrator (lower part) and crystallizer
(upper part), all are arranged in series.
The plant use factor is [beta] =83%, or [tau]=7272 h, because the plant is closed two months yearly (Production plant data, 2004).This technology which consists of process operations in autoclave reactor, filters, dryers, esterification reactor, crystallizer
, melter, rollers, transesterification reactor, polymerizer, polymer melt, tow drawing, crimper, cutter and baler uses a large amount of electrical energy, steam and water (Fig.1.).The dry saturated steam [t.sub.S]=132[degrees]C (3 bar) in mass of [d.sub.S]=2,3kgS/[kg.sub.P] generated in a natural gas fueled boiler with efficiency [[eta].sub.B] =82% is transferred to the autoclave reactor where terephtalic acid is produced.
y Kay, H., "Kinetic of crystallization of potassium sulphate in ammoniator crystallizer
", The Chemical Engineering Journal, Np 123, (1995).
The products include the Crystal16 parallel crystallizer
, the Flowrence parallel fixed-bed reactor system and the Block96 batch reactor platform.
The 52 papers were presented--18 orally and 34 as posters--in sessions on crystallization as a product technology, predicting and controlling polymorph crystallization, crystallization in complex and multi-component systems, designing and operating precipitation processes, and the crystallizer
of the future.
The liquid cocoa butter is partially crystallized in a shear crystallizer
. The microscopically small crystals undergo additional processing in a conversion tank in which they are converted to their most stable form.