The performance of MKSCDL exceeds that of the other two methods especially with regard to cumuliform
, waveform, and cirriform clouds.
Moreover, the NubiScope algorithm correctly differentiated between the lower cloud-base heights of the optically denser cumuliform
cloud layers at a distance of up to ~3 km and the higher cloud-base heights of the more translucent cloud layer at a greater distance of more than 5 km from the MOL-RAO.
"Usually it depends on the availability of convective or cumuliform
clouds," said Al Musallam.
clouds, heavy precipitation, and high moisture are all efficient at producing SLD hazards.
Tennessee's definition was closest in comparison to the NWS definition, stating, "A tornado is a violently rotating column of air, pendant from a cumuliform
cloud or underneath a cumuliform
cloud and often (but not always) visible as a funnel cloud." While this definition is almost an exact one, it leaves out a crucial concept that the circulation must reach the ground to be classified as a tornado.
The existence of cumuliform
types also means deeper precipitation layers.
Cloud types are divided into two main categories: cumuliform
The GOES-14 animation (Video7) in the online supplement for this article (available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1175 /BAMS-D-13-00210.2) also shows the transformation of the atmosphere from convectively unstable, with transverse bands in the cirrus outflow suggestive of turbulence, to an atmosphere with midlevel cumuliform
clouds (over northwest Wisconsin) in the wake of a departing mesoscale system.
With residual moisture behind the departing system, we often see widespread cumuliform
clouds and showery weather in the mountains across Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Arizona close to the trough axis.
Expect plenty of gusty winds, cumuliform
cloud layers and possibly showers if enough moisture is present.
Daytime hours are characterized by the development of cumuliform
clouds, local sea breezes and lake breezes that move inland, and scattered showers along these boundaries as well as old stagnant boundaries from the previous day.
We find these attributes: smoke columns tend to rise vertically, visibility is excellent, turbulence is favored, wind tends to be gusty, and cloud layers tend to be cumuliform
. It may seem counterintuitive that we would find excellent visibility in an unstable layer, but the deep vertical motions disperse haze and fog.