The Clinitest method detects reducing substances in urine by their conversion of cupric sulfate to cuprous oxide
. This produces a color change in the sample, which is read visually against a chart to obtain the concentration of reducing substances present.
The resulting enriched cuprous oxide
([Cu.sub.2]O)-based organic conversion coating has provided improved physical strength and much greater acid resistance compared to the 100% cupric oxide (CuO) coatings (comprised of dendritic crystals), generated by the older black oxide processes.
It was hypothesized that differing concentration of cuprous oxide
would have differential effects on the condition of the hydrilla.
The red coloration observed with cross-polarized light microscopy is consistent with the properties of cuprous oxide
Traditional organotin or cuprous oxide
paints used to battle this fouling are effective, but toxic.
Carter, "Electronic structure of pure and doped cuprous oxide
with copper vacancies: suppression of trap states," Chemistry of Materials, vol.
Of the concerned photocatalysts, cuprous oxide
([Cu.sub.2]O), a p-type semiconductor with a small direct band gap (1.9-2.2 eV), has been proved to be the most promising candidate for visible-light-driven photocatalytic decontamination [1-4].
This is traditionally achieved by the addition of cuprous oxide
as a pigment, combined with organic co-biocides, in order to deliver the required biocide activity to fight off the entire span of marine-based biofouling organisms.
The most successful embodiment of this approach is the contact-leaching composition in which the cuprous oxide
level is high and the soluble matrix is toughened with suitable co-resins (flexible, less soluble).
As a p-type semiconductor material, cuprous oxide
([Cu.sub.2]O) has been paid much attention owing to its fundamental significance and widespread potential applications in solar cells, gas sensors, Li-ion battery, and catalysis [1-5].
A large number use the inorganic compound cuprous oxide
. Others include teflon, silicone coatings--such as Hempasil X3--polyurethane, and wax coatings that have limited negative impacts on the environment.