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(1) In ancient Rome, an association of certain patrician families (gentes) that was analogous to the Greek phratry. According to tradition there were 30 curiae, ten in each tribe. Originally the curia was part of the clan organization—possibly, a men’s group connected with coming-of-age ceremonies. (There is evidence for this hypothesis in the worship of the goddess Juno, which was associated with initiations—rituals during which a youth was consecrated as a man.) During the period when the state was formed the curiae became extremely important military and political cells in Roman society. Evidently, each curia was headed by an elected curio who had priestly functions. Each curia had its own place for holding assemblies (which was also called the curia), as well as its own sanctuaries.

The curiate assembly (comitia curiata)— that is, assembly of male soldiers—elected kings during the royal period and magistrates in the early stages of the republic. But with the establishment of the centuriate assembly (comitia centuriata), the curiae confirmed elected officials and entrusted the symbols of authority to them. Under the republic all the curiae were headed by a grand curio, and plebeians were allowed to vote in the curiate assembly. During the imperial period the curiae came to be known as municipal councils.

(2) In Western Europe during the Middle Ages the feudal curia was a council consisting of a lord and his vassals. The royal curia (Curia Regis)—a feudal curia made up of the king’s direct vassals—was an advisory assembly of feudal magnates convoked by the king and granted broad but not strictly defined functions, most of which were judicial. As the royal power grew stronger, this curia became a more limited council of the king’s closest advisers (the Royal Council). Moreover, financial and judicial affairs were assigned to special offices.

(3) The Roman curia (Curia Romana) is made up of a number of institutions that are subordinate to the pope.

(4) In bourgeois countries and in prerevolutionary Russia curiae were separate categories into which voters were divided according to property, nationality, and other criteria (electoral curiae).


The council house in a Roman municipality.
References in periodicals archive ?
En el presente trabajo nos proponemos realizar algunas reflexiones generales sobre el amicus curiae ("amigo del tribunal" o "asistente oficioso") y subrayar su incidencia o utilidad para elevar la cotizacion cualitativa del debate jurisdiccional constitucional.
The amicus curiae report submitted to the apex court had pointed out that the smuggling of gold out of the temple premises was with the knowledge of the "top echelons" of the administration.
39) Finally, Mexico amended its civil procedure code to authorize amici curiae in 2011.
Besides Microsoft, EMC, and NetApp, software trade group BSA, Picture Archive Council of America and Graphic Artists Guild have also filed amicus curiae briefs in support of Oracle, according to court records.
The extent to which amici curiae have been able to participate in the different international dispute resolution fora varies according to the procedural rules which govern each particular forum.
29, which concerns amicus curiae briefs, was amended in 2010 to add disclosure requirements concerning authorship and funding.
Clinica Juridica de Acciones de Interes Publico de la PUCP luego de intenso trabajo academico, guiado por los profesores de la facultad, Gorki Gonzales Mantilla e Yvan Montoya, presento un amicus curiae para el caso Fujimori, el cual pretende aportar elementos de juicio para que la Corte Suprema de Justicia del Peru resuelva el proceso penal seguido contra el ex presidente, Alberto Fujimori Fujimori, por la comision del delito de homicidio calificado en los casos Barrios Altos y La Cantuta.
A party who submits such a brief is known as an amicus curiae (a Latin term meaning "friend of the court"), and the brief is called an amicus brief.
In a case filed by gay couples seeking the right to marry in the state, more than 250 religious and civil rights groups on January 9 filed eight separate amicus curiae briefs urging the California appellate court to strike down laws banning same-sex marriage.
I have to declare an interest in that a year or so ago I did a misguided amicus curiae evaluation of the existing site.
The AICPA filed an amicus curiae brief supporting Andersen's successful position; and