Gall, the oral transmission of liturgical practice in the 11th-century customaries
of Cluny, what Charles the Simple told the canons of Compiegne, conversation amongst monks and nuns 1000-1200, and Bernard of Clairvaux and the communicative implications of gesture.
Note that in order to understand the presented problem and the advocated approach, one must not restrict him self to national law but frequently shift to the territories of international and international sport law, which both have their specific doctrines and customaries
. One typical aspect international law is certainly that it is not static, but adapts to opinio juris, and also that interpretation is legal part of authoritative decisions.
Our major witnesses to the system, however, are the customaries
of Bernard and of Ulrich, from the late eleventh century.
, which compile monastic legislation and reveal details about the customs at work in the cloister, often include information about the training of novices in the monastery's silent signs.
Nor does Cure Rex register in other early Elevatio customaries
(all in the Visitatio Sepulchri, type I category), despite the appearance of certain Easter office antiphons; see my comments in "The Role of the Office Antiphon in Tenth-Century Liturgical Drama," Musica Disciplina 34 (1980): 5-27, and "Ambiguities in the Designation of Antiphons for the Tenth-Century Quem Quaeritis," Musica Disciplina 51 (1997): 103-26.
Not least of all, this period saw a renewed interest in matters of conduct and a concern to commit practices to writing which gave rise to a body of monastic customaries
dealing with the organisation of the monastery and the daily life of the community.