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chargeA property of certain elementary particles that causes them to attract or repel each other. Charged particles have associated electric and magnetic fields that allow them to interact with each other and with external electric and magnetic fields. Charge is conventionally ‘negative’ or ‘positive’: like charges repel, unlike charges attract. The electron possesses the natural unit of negative charge, equal to 1.6022 × 10–19 coulombs. The proton carries a positive charge of the same magnitude. If matter is charged, it is due to an excess or deficit of electrons with respect to protons.
a French term used in some languages (in Russian, sharzh) to describe a satirical or humorous likeness, usually of a person, that renders the model’s outer appearance while emphasizing essential traits of character. The charge, a special type of caricature, is broader than the English term “cartoon,” as it may be executed in various media, including scultpure.
Outstanding masters of the charge have included L. Bernini, H. Daumier, and the Russian artists B. M. Kustodiev, V. A. Serov, and N. A. Stepanov. The genre has been developed in the USSR by V. N. Deni, B. E. Efimov, 1.1. Igin, Kukryniksy, D. S. Moor, and F. P. Reshetnikov. Methods of the charge have often been applied to literature, mainly in lampoons, feuilletons, and epigrams.
a mixture of materials in specific proportion, subjected to treatment in metallurgical, chemical, and other plants. The charge is designed for the manufacture of products with specified physical and chemical properties. Metallurgical charges may contain ores, ore concentrates, agglomerates, recycled slag, dust from a collection device, metals (mainly as scrap), fluxes, and sometimes fuel, for example, in the smelting of pig iron and ferrous alloys in blast furnaces. The charge is loaded into the processing unit in the form of a homogeneous mixture (as a powder, in lumps, or as briquettes) prepared outside the unit or as separate, proportioned quantities of the individual components. The charge materials are usually stored in stockyards.