cyanide

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cyanide

(sī`ənīd'), chemical compound containing the cyano groupcyano group
, in chemistry, functional group that consists of a carbon atom joined to a nitrogen atom by a triple bond; it can be joined to an atom or another group by a single bond to the carbon atom. When a cyano group is joined to hydrogen, it forms hydrogen cyanide.
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, -CN. Cyanides are salts or esters of hydrogen cyanidehydrogen cyanide,
HCN, colorless, volatile, and extremely poisonous chemical compound whose vapors have a bitter almond odor. It melts at −14°C; and boils at 26°C;. It is miscible in all proportions with water or ethanol and is soluble in ether.
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 (hydrocyanic acid, HCN) formed by replacing the hydrogen with a metal (e.g., sodium or potassium) or a radical (e.g., ammonium or ethyl). The most common and widely used cyanides are those of sodium and potassium; they are often referred to simply as "cyanide." Both are white, crystalline, chemically active compounds. They are used as insecticides, in making pigments, in metallurgy (e.g., electroplating and case hardening), and in refining gold and silver by the cyanide processcyanide process
or cyanidation,
method for extracting gold from its ore. The ore is first finely ground and may be concentrated by flotation; if it contains certain impurities, it may be roasted.
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. Organic cyanides are called nitriles. The ethyl ester of hydrogen cyanide (CH3CH2CN) is called variously ethyl cyanide, propionitrile, propane nitrile, nitrilopropane, and cyanoethane; propane nitrile is the approved name in the nomenclature system for organic chemistry adopted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Most cyanides are deadly poisons that cause respiratory failure. Symptoms of cyanide poisoning include an odor of bitter almond on the breath, dizziness, convulsions, collapse, and, often, froth on the mouth. In case of cyanide poisoning a doctor should be summoned immediately. If the poison was swallowed, vomiting should be induced. Artificial respiration should be used if needed.

Cyanide

 

a salt of hydrocyanic acid. The cyanide salts of the alkali metals MCN and the alkaline-earth metals M(CN)2, where M is a metal, are thermally stable but are hydrolyzed in aqueous solutions. The cyanides of the heavy metals are thermally unstable and, with the exception of Hg(CN)2, are insoluble in water.

The oxidation of cyanides leads to the formation of cyanates; for example, 2KCN + O2 → 2KOCN. Many metals upon the action of an excess of potassium cyanide or sodium cyanide yield complexes. This proves useful in the extraction of gold and silver from ores (cyanidation, cyanide process):

4NaCN + 2Au + ½O2 + H2O → 2Na[ Au(CN)2] + 2NaOH

Gold and silver are separated from solution by electrodeposition or by the action of metallic zinc. Solutions of the cyanide complexes of gold, silver, zinc, and other metals are used in electroplating technology for the production of coatings. Cyanides are also used in organic synthesis, for example, in the production of nitriles, and as catalysts (in benzoin condensation).

Cyanides are extremely toxic. (For information on the effect of cyanides on the organism and on safety measures when handling them, seeHYDROCYANIC ACID.)

REFERENCES

Bobkov, S. S., and S. K. Smirnov. Sinil’naia kislota. Moscow, 1970.
Zil’berman, E. N. Reaktsii nitrilov. Moscow, 1972.
Tomilov, A. P., and S. K. Smirnov. Adipodinitril i geksamet ilendiamin. Moscow, 1974.
Williams, H. E. Cyanogen Compounds, 2nd ed. London, 1948.
Migrdichian, V. The Chemistry of Organic Cyanogen Compounds. New York, 1947.
Methoden der Organischen Chemie (Houben-Weyl), 4th ed., vol. 8. Stuttgart, 1952.

S. K. SMIRNOV

cyanide

[′sī·ə‚nīd]
(inorganic chemistry)
Any of a group of compounds containing the CN group and derived from hydrogen cyanide, HCN.

cyanide

, cyanid
1. any salt of hydrocyanic acid. Cyanides contain the ion CN-- and are extremely poisonous
2. another name (not in technical usage) for nitrile
References in periodicals archive ?
The epidemiologic, traceback, and laboratory investigations indicated that this outbreak of cyanide poisoning resulted from eating cassava with a high cyanogenic content.
Aubriot, "Cyanide poisoning from propionitrile exposure," The Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol.
Hydroxocobalamin monotherapy was demonstrated to be safe and effective in reversing cyanide poisoning in our case.
A serious drawback connected to oral, but not parenteral, use of amygdalin is the risk of cyanide poisoning, manifesting as headache, dizziness and confusion and, if severe, as paralysis, coma and death.
CAT activity can be a good diagnostic tool of biological tracing program for sodium cyanide poisoning (David et al., 2008).
Antidotal treatment of cyanide poisoning. J Chin Med Assoc 2003;66:193-203.
Typical signs of acute cyanide poisoning include tachypnea, headaches, vertigo, lack of motor coordination, weak pulse, cardiac arrhythmias, vomiting, stupor, convulsions, and coma (Ballantyne, 1983; Johnson & Mellors, 1988; Way, 1984).
He said: " The pro- UCC lobbysuccessfully influenced the central and state governments to stop the antidote by falsely denying the possibility of cyanide poisoning." Ten days after the 1984 disaster, UCC's medical chief supported administration of thiosulphate but, in a telex message 3 days later, forbid it ' ' -- Dr N.
PITTSBURGH, Muharram 15, 1436, Nov 8, 2014, SPA -- A University of Pittsburgh researcher charged in the cyanide poisoning death of his wife last year has been convicted of first-degree murder, AP reported.
Two years later, he died from cyanide poisoning in an apparent suicide.
Methylene blue has been used for cyanide poisoning. In humans, it is teratogenic and fetal toxic when given by intra-amniotic injection, but its oral use as an antidote in pregnancy has not been reported.