cyano group


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cyano group

(sī`ənō, sī-ăn`ō), in chemistry, functional groupfunctional group,
in organic chemistry, group of atoms within a molecule that is responsible for certain properties of the molecule and reactions in which it takes part. Organic compounds are frequently classified according to the functional group or groups they contain.
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 that consists of a carbon atom joined to a nitrogen atom by a triple bond; it can be joined to an atom or another group by a single bond to the carbon atom. When a cyano group is joined to hydrogen, it forms hydrogen cyanidehydrogen cyanide,
HCN, colorless, volatile, and extremely poisonous chemical compound whose vapors have a bitter almond odor. It melts at −14°C; and boils at 26°C;. It is miscible in all proportions with water or ethanol and is soluble in ether.
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. When it is joined to a metal, it forms a metal cyanidecyanide
, chemical compound containing the cyano group, -CN. Cyanides are salts or esters of hydrogen cyanide (hydrocyanic acid, HCN) formed by replacing the hydrogen with a metal (e.g., sodium or potassium) or a radical (e.g., ammonium or ethyl).
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. When it is joined to an alkyl groupalkyl group
, in chemistry, group of carbon and hydrogen atoms derived from an alkane molecule by removing one hydrogen atom (see radical). The name of the alkyl group is derived from the name of its alkane by replacing the -ane suffix with -yl, e.g.
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 or aryl grouparyl group
, in chemistry, group of atoms derived from benzene or from a benzene derivative by removing one hydrogen that is bonded to the benzene ring (see radical). The simplest aryl group is phenyl, C6H5 ; it is derived from benzene.
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, it forms a nitrile. When two cyano groups are joined directly to one another, they form the cyanogencyanogen
, NCCN, colorless, flammable, extremely poisonous gas with a characteristic odor somewhat like that of hydrogen cyanide. It melts at −35°C;, boils at −21°C;, and is soluble in water, ethanol, or ether. It is chemically very active.
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 molecule, NCCN. Both the cyano group and hydrogen cyanide have been found in interstellar space.
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Polymerization occurs through the cyano groups on phthalonitrile units by an addition mechanism to afford the heterocyclic cross-linked products such as polytriazine, polyimine, and polyphthalocyanine, which ensures that these materials possess excellent thermal and oxidative stability [2, 11-13].
In IR spectrum of this compound, in the positions of 3420 [cm.sup.-1] and 2205 [cm.sup.-1] the peaks of the amine and Cyano groups were observed respectively.
Anomalous heteroring opening of oxazinone by azide was supposed to occur via nucleophilic attack of azide either at C-2 of oxazinone ring followed by ring opening and addition of azido group on cyano group to yield tetrazolylfuran derivative 10 or at C-4 of oxazinone followed by Curtius's rearrangement to isocyanate intermediate and then cyclization to give furo[3,2-d]imidazolone derivative 11 as summarized at Scheme 4.
It is found that the normalized intensity of the characteristic absorption peak at 2233 [cm.sup.-1] attributed to cyano group decreased distinctly after prepolymer was cured at 240[degrees]C, while several new characteristic peaks located at 3289 [cm.sup.-1] attributed to phthalocyanine ring, 1526 and 1360 [cm.sup.-1] attributed to triazine ring were observed, which indicated that the new structures such as phthalocyanine ring [16, 17] and triazine ring [16, 17] had formed by these thermally activated reactions.
Though cyanofeerocene is a better acceptor than ferrocene, the cyano group on cyanoferrocene causes the cyclopentadieny1 rings to tilt such that the unsubstiuted side of cyanoferrocene does not have as much separation for the donor to intercollate between the cyclopentadieny1 rings.
In addition, the cyano groups enhance the ICT along the polymer chain thus lowering the band gap energy of the polymer.
It is supposed that chelating effects of Ag ions and Ag nucleus with cyano groups in PAN polymer and phenolic hydroxyls in TP molecules play a crucial role in the synthesis of AgNPs in PAN nanofibers, which will be proved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results and discussed later.
For example, PEN is widely used as dielectric materials for its high dielectric constant attributing to the polar cyano groups as the side-chains on the backbone [18-21].
Cyanoform has a central carbon atom attached to a hydrogen atom and to three cyano groups, each consisting of a carbon triplebonded to a nitrogen.
The higher frequencies of vC[equivalent to]N that appear at 2153- 2146 [cm.sup.-1] than the peak observed in [K.sub.4][Fe[(CN).sub.6]], are assigned to the stretching vibration of the equatorial CN- ligands in agreement with the M-CN-M' bridging nature of these cyano groups. The vC[equivalent to]N stretching frequencies of these CN groups depend on the electronegativity, crystal field stability, oxidation number, and coordination number of the metal ion [23].
(1.) Mercer, FW, McKenzie, MT, Bruma, M, Schulz, B, "Synthesis and Properties of Fluorinated Polyimides and Fluorinated Poly(imide amide)s Containing Pendent Cyano Groups." Polym.
The self-healing crosslinked polymer gel has a backbone with cohesive functional groups such as hydroxyl groups, acetates, thiols, amines, amides, carboxylic acids, carboxylates, phosphonates, sulfonyl halides, silicate esters, ammonium salts, sulfonyl acids, siloxyls, silyls, or cyano groups. These active functional groups spontaneously eliminate visual irregularities or defects within the electrochromic medium during the lifetime of the device.