Acetonitrile is used by Ineos as a pharmaceutical solvent, and Lucite International uses Acetone Cyanohydrin
in the production of hard plastics.
For a long time, tests on fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils and their constituents against stored-product insects have been realized and conducted with a large scale of plants (mainly belonging to Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae and Myrtaceae) and their components (cyanohydrins
, monoterpenoids, sulphucompounds, thiocyanates and others) and have largely focused on beetle pests such as Tribolium castaneum, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais.
One theory about this outcome speculates that carbonyl groups in the sugar molecules created an immediate antidote by reacting with the poison cyanide to form cyanohydrins
Hydrolysis of these glucosides is catalyzed by a [beta]-glucosidase, linamarase and yields glucose and acetone cyanohydrins
(Santana et al., 2002).
After tissue damage, these are hydrolyzed by the endogenous enzyme linamarase to cyanohydrins
. Further hydrolysis to HCN is responsible for chronic toxicity.
L-ephedrine is an ingredient ofpharmaceutical preparations used as antiasthmaticsand decongestants (Rogers et al., 1998).1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-2-propanone can beprepared by chemical synthesis from cyanohydrins
(Brusse et al., 1988; Jackson et al., 1990) but it is prepared industrially by the biotransformation of benzaldehyde (Netrval and Vojtisek, 1982).