In 2011, the United States prosecuted the operators of NinjaVideo, a site collecting links to copyright-infringing files stored on a popular cyberlocker
(107.) See Schuyler Velasco, Pop-Up Piracy: Indie Filmmaker Speaks Out, BACK STAGE (July 26, 2010), http://www.backstage.com/bso/content_display/news-and-features/news/ e3i172dfa7ecfd6ae96559231d9e2c27b2e; see also Dirty Money, POPUPPIRATES, http://popuppirates.com (last visited June 13, 2012) (describing the plight of the independently released 2009 film And Then Came Lola, which became available through more than 50,000 unauthorized links, online streams, and cyberlocker
websites, many of which generated money for the uploaders).
"It's relatively easy to crack DRM [digital rights management] off a PDF of a book and post it, and once that's done it's replicated everywhere," on peer-to-peer (P2P) sites and cyberlocker
sites, which store personal digital files.
Like Orkut, they direct pirate audiences to cyberlocker
Drew Houston, CEO of Dropbox, Inc., says he came up with the idea for the site because he needed a file-hosting (or "cyberlocker
Also, data from cyberlocker
downloads and online streaming is not included.
Unlike P2P networks, which require a dedicated client application (such as uTorrent for BitTorrent or eMule for eDonkey), users of a cyberlocker
only need a Web browser to store or access content on it.
Italy has targeted a total of 27 BitTorrent and cyberlocker
websites in the biggest file-sharing crackdown since 2010.
Back in January, Kim "Dotcom" Schmitz got a (http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/286781/20120124/megaupload-shutdown-megabox-mega-millions-kim-dotcom.htm) rude awakening when police shut down the entire cyberlocker
for his website Megaupload, which was one of the largest file-sharing sites at the time.
While that's the best known type of video piracy, there are plenty of other methods, such as cyberlockers
. These are sites, created before P2P technology, with long lists of links to pirated material.