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in Europe, fermented juice of apples; in the United States, unfermented apple juice, unless allowed to ferment, in which case it is typically known as hard cider. Selected apples are grated in a mill, and the juice is expressed and, for hard cider, fermented and filtered. The commercial product is usually pasteurized or treated with preservatives and is frequently blended to balance the chief constituents, sugar, malic acid, and tannin. In France cider is made principally in Normandy and Brittany. It is at its best after a year or two in cask. English cider from the southern and western counties is noted and rivals beer as a popular alcoholic beverage. Cider is popular also in Germany, Spain, and Switzerland. Perry is a similar beverage made from pears.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a low-alcohol (5–7 percent by volume) fruit wine obtained by the fermentation of apple juice. The characteristic qualities of cider are attributable to the taste and aroma of apples and to the saturation of the fermented beverage with carbon dioxide. Cider is generally made from late-season apples and may be sweet (sugar content, 10 g/l), semisweet (5 g/l), and dry (sugarless).

Cider originated in northern France, where it is the name given to any alcoholic beverage made from apples. It is consumed widely in Austria, Switzerland, Great Britain, and other countries. In the USSR, cider is produced in the RSFSR, Byelorussia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


(food engineering)
Juice extracted from apples or similar fruits that has not been subjected to processing.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


, cyder
1. an alcoholic drink made from the fermented juice of apples
2. US and Canadian an unfermented drink made from apple juice
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


(Classless Inter-Domain Routing) An expansion of the original IPv4 addressing system that allows for a more efficient allocation of addresses. The original class-based method used fixed fields for network IDs, which was wasteful. For example, Class A and B networks can address 16 million and 65 thousand hosts respectively, and most organizations given those addresses never had intentions of putting that many computers on the Internet. See IP address.

From Fixed to Variable
CIDR changed the fixed fields into variable-length fields, allowing addresses to be assigned with finer granularity. The CIDR IP address includes a number that tells how the address is split between networks and hosts. For example, in the CIDR address the /18 indicates that the first 18 bits are used for network ID and the remaining 14 (there are 32 bits in an IPv4 address) are used for host ID (see supernetting).

Routing Is More Manageable
Blocks of CIDR addresses have been given to ISPs, who in turn disseminate them to their customers, which may be end users or smaller ISPs. CIDR reduces the burden on Internet routers by aggregating routes so that one IP address represents all the thousands of customers serviced by a single ISP. All packets sent to any of those customer addresses are routed via the one IP address, requiring only one entry in the routing table. In 1990, there were about 2,000 routes on the Internet. By 1995, there were more than 30,000, and without CIDR, the core routers on the Internet backbone would have been overloaded. See private IP address.

CIDR Prefixes
The following table shows the number of hosts allotted to each CIDR block. Note that the CIDR number /13, /14, etc. is called the CIDR "prefix" even though it is written at the end of the IP address. It is called the prefix because it represents the number of bits in the network ID, and the network ID is the "first" part of the IP address.

CIDR      Number ofPrefix    Hosts

     /13       524,288
     /14       262,144
     /15       131,072
     /16        65,536
     /17        32,768
     /18        16,384
     /19         8,192
     /20         4,096
     /21         2,048
     /22         1,024
     /23           512
     /24           256
     /25           128
     /26            64
     /27            32
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
References in periodicals archive ?
“There's been lots of hard work with many hours spent being soggy and half frozen in the autumn but once spring arrives, the new season cyder's ready and the apple trees are in blossom, it all suddenly seems worth it.
185) Fuller's own broad sense of Augustanism exists between these two extremes, and, as he told the British Academy in 1976, `Augustan poets may make jokes about banknotes, or tell you which kinds of apple make the best cider, but are never far from seeing such concerns as part of a way of life really possible for their contemporaries and worth helping to bring about'.(23) This statement of ideal intent, made with Pope's `Epistle to Bathhurst' and Philips's Cyder in mind, applies equally to Fuller, whose work frequently considers how the intellectual legacy of those poets born in the century and a half between 1621 (Marvell) and 1772 (Coleridge) might benefit the late twentieth century.
Meanwhile some British venues have taken the European market concept and adapted it to match their surroundings, as at Healeys Cornish Cyder Farm in the heart of Cornwall.
It was written entirely with a quill pen, and some of the transactions listed in the ink-smudged journal include the sale of veal for 5 cents a pound, a cord of chestnut wood, cider (spelled "cyder''), sales of butter, cheese and many other items which were paid for in dollars, shillings or trade of goods or labor.
With 50 ciders on special offer, look out for delights like Westons Organic Pear (down to pounds 1 from pounds 1.69 for 500ml), Thatcher's Katy Rose (pounds 3, down from pounds 3.79 for 750ml) or Aspall Dry Cyder (down to pounds 1.55 from pounds 1.85 for 500ml).
To that end, the Aspall's Suffolk Cyder Maiden Hurdle (4.40) could offer a nice staging post for immediate gains in his new career.
To that end, the Aspall's Suffolk Cyder Maiden Hurdle could offer a nice staging post for immediate gains in his new career.
Chapter four examines the relationship of the georgic to British nationhood and chapters five and six dissect Ambrose Philips's Cyder (1708) and Richard Jago's Edge-Hill (1767) within that context.
Aspall, the award-winning cyder, is the latest premium brand to join Thomas Lowndes impressive portfolio of leading, international culinary liqueur and spirit brands.