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Cypress, city, United States
cypress, in botany
(Cupressus), a genus of evergreen trees or shrubs of the family Cupressaceae. The leaves are crosswise-opposite, small, scale-like, and resinous-glandular; they are either ap-pressed or spreading, with a convex underside. The cones are sphere-shaped and woody. The scales are peltate, multifaceted, and appressed, with a short cusp in the center. The scales on mature cones (second season) are somewhat separated. The seeds are flat and have wings that are more or less developed.
Cypresses are used as ornamental trees to border avenues; they are also planted individually or as a forest. There are between 15 and 20 known species of cypress, distributed in the temperate zones of Europe, Asia, North Africa (the Sahara), and North America. Eleven species are cultivated in the USSR, in the Crimea, on the Black Sea shore of the Caucasus, and in some regions of Middle Asia.
The most frequently cultivated species is the Italian cypress (Cupressus sempervirens), which reaches a height of 30 m and a thickness of 60 cm. It begins to bear fruit between the ages of four and six years. The Italian cypress is drought-resistant, grows rapidly, and lives up to 2,000 years (in the Crimea it usually lives less than 100 years as a result of root and stump rot). The light, soft wood is used in the manufacture of furniture and of small carved and turned articles.
Cypresses with columnar and, more rarely, horizontal (with diverging branches) habits of growth are most widespread. Cultivated species include the Monterey cypress (C. macrocarpa), the Bhutan cypress (C. torulosa), the Portuguese cypress (C. lusitanica), the Arizona cypress (C. arizonica), and the mourning cypress (C. funebris).
REFERENCESFlora SSSR, vol. 1. Leningrad, 1934.
Derev’ia i kustarniki SSSR, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1949.
T. G. LEONOVA