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cystitis(sĭstī`tĭs), common acute or chronic inflammation of the urinary bladderbladder, urinary,
muscular sac located in the pelvis that stores urine and contracts to expel it from the body. Urine enters the bladder from the kidneys through the ureters and is discharged from the body via the urethra. The bladder of the adult human can hold over a pint (0.
..... Click the link for more information. . The disease occurs primarily in young women and frequently results from bacterial invasion of the urethra from the adjacent rectum, most commonly with normally occurring intestinal bacteria such as E. coli. It is also common in menopausal women; in them, the bacteria is transmitted from a vagina left more susceptible to bacterial overgrowth by changes in estrogen levels. In men cystitis rarely occurs without some other urinary tract disorder, such as kidney stones or, especially in older men, an enlarged prostate gland. Other predisposing factors are pregnancy, diabetes, and various systemic disorders.
Usual symptoms are frequent urination with burning pain, blood in the urine, and pain in the pubic area; chills and fever, back pain, and nausea may indicate kidney involvement. Treatment is with antibioticsantibiotic,
any of a variety of substances, usually obtained from microorganisms, that inhibit the growth of or destroy certain other microorganisms. Types of Antibiotics
..... Click the link for more information. and can also include the relief of any obstructions.
Interstitial cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder wall of unknown cause. It has the same symptoms as cystitis plus severe pelvic pain and frequency of urination (sometimes more than 60 times daily) that interferes with sleep, work, and daily life. No bacteria are present in the urine and it does not respond to antibiotics. It is diagnosed by the presence of lesions seen on the bladder wall during cystoscopy. Ninety percent of those affected are women. Diagnostic criteria were standardized only in 1988; it was often treated as a psychological disorder prior to that time. Treatment includes direct instillation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) into the bladder for relief of pain and inflammation, tricyclic antidepressantsantidepressant,
any of a wide range of drugs used to treat psychic depression. They are given to elevate mood, counter suicidal thoughts, and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
..... Click the link for more information. for pain relief, and a low-acid diet.
inflammation of the urinary bladder caused by infection. The condition may be chronic or acute; various types of cystitis (such as catarrhal and hemorrhagic cystitis) are distinguished, depending on the changes that take place locally. Acute cystitis frequently follows chilling, especially in women. Symptoms include pain in the lower abdomen and sacrum, frequent and painful urination, and passage of blood at the end of urination. The body temperature is usually normal. The urine is found to contain albumin, leukocytes, erythrocytes, and bacteria. Acute cystitis lasts between one and two weeks. In cases of longer duration, cystoscopy and other examination methods are used to determine the possible cause of chronic cystitis—for example, adenoma in the prostate gland, gallstones, or uterine disorders.
Treatment includes the elimination of spicy foods from the diet, copious intake of fluids (water, fruit juices, fruit punches, and broths), antibacterial agents (including antibiotics and sul-fanilamides), antispasmodics, analgesics, and the application of heat to the lower abdomen (by means of sitz baths or hot-water bottles). Chronic cystitis is also treated locally: for example, antiinflammatory agents may be introduced in the bladder, or the latter may be disinfected by means of lavage.
REFERENCEGol’din, G. I. Tsistity. Moscow, 1960.
A. L. SHABAD