cystitis


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cystitis

(sĭstī`tĭs), common acute or chronic inflammation of the urinary bladderbladder, urinary,
muscular sac located in the pelvis that stores urine and contracts to expel it from the body. Urine enters the bladder from the kidneys through the ureters and is discharged from the body via the urethra. The bladder of the adult human can hold over a pint (0.
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. The disease occurs primarily in young women and frequently results from bacterial invasion of the urethra from the adjacent rectum, most commonly with normally occurring intestinal bacteria such as E. coli. It is also common in menopausal women; in them, the bacteria is transmitted from a vagina left more susceptible to bacterial overgrowth by changes in estrogen levels. In men cystitis rarely occurs without some other urinary tract disorder, such as kidney stones or, especially in older men, an enlarged prostate gland. Other predisposing factors are pregnancy, diabetes, and various systemic disorders.

Usual symptoms are frequent urination with burning pain, blood in the urine, and pain in the pubic area; chills and fever, back pain, and nausea may indicate kidney involvement. Treatment is with antibioticsantibiotic,
any of a variety of substances, usually obtained from microorganisms, that inhibit the growth of or destroy certain other microorganisms. Types of Antibiotics
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 and can also include the relief of any obstructions.

Interstitial cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder wall of unknown cause. It has the same symptoms as cystitis plus severe pelvic pain and frequency of urination (sometimes more than 60 times daily) that interferes with sleep, work, and daily life. No bacteria are present in the urine and it does not respond to antibiotics. It is diagnosed by the presence of lesions seen on the bladder wall during cystoscopy. Ninety percent of those affected are women. Diagnostic criteria were standardized only in 1988; it was often treated as a psychological disorder prior to that time. Treatment includes direct instillation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) into the bladder for relief of pain and inflammation, tricyclic antidepressantsantidepressant,
any of a wide range of drugs used to treat psychic depression. They are given to elevate mood, counter suicidal thoughts, and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
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 for pain relief, and a low-acid diet.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cystitis

 

inflammation of the urinary bladder caused by infection. The condition may be chronic or acute; various types of cystitis (such as catarrhal and hemorrhagic cystitis) are distinguished, depending on the changes that take place locally. Acute cystitis frequently follows chilling, especially in women. Symptoms include pain in the lower abdomen and sacrum, frequent and painful urination, and passage of blood at the end of urination. The body temperature is usually normal. The urine is found to contain albumin, leukocytes, erythrocytes, and bacteria. Acute cystitis lasts between one and two weeks. In cases of longer duration, cystoscopy and other examination methods are used to determine the possible cause of chronic cystitis—for example, adenoma in the prostate gland, gallstones, or uterine disorders.

Treatment includes the elimination of spicy foods from the diet, copious intake of fluids (water, fruit juices, fruit punches, and broths), antibacterial agents (including antibiotics and sul-fanilamides), antispasmodics, analgesics, and the application of heat to the lower abdomen (by means of sitz baths or hot-water bottles). Chronic cystitis is also treated locally: for example, antiinflammatory agents may be introduced in the bladder, or the latter may be disinfected by means of lavage.

REFERENCE

Gol’din, G. I. Tsistity. Moscow, 1960.

A. L. SHABAD

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

cystitis

[si′stīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of a fluid-filled organ, especially the urinary bladder.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cystitis

inflammation of the urinary bladder
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Interstitial cystitis also known as painful bladder syndrome is a chronic disease that results in recurring discomfort or pain in the bladder and the surrounding pelvic region.
[9] reported successful treatment of radiation-induced severe hemorrhagic cystitis with oral administration of prednisolone and resolved macroscopic hematuria within 2 weeks.
Some dogs with cystitis become very thirsty and they often feel unwell.
Susannah Fraser, spokesperson for the Cystitis & Overactive Bladder Foundation (COB Foundation; www.cobfoundation.org) says: "Cystitis is a common problem, and while it can go within a few days, it's normally very painful and people will often go to the doctor for antibiotics to help clear it up.
* The report provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Interstitial Cystitis (Painful Bladder Syndrome)
* The report reviews key players involved in the therapeutics development for Interstitial Cystitis (Painful Bladder Syndrome) and enlists all their major and minor projects
Our patient presented with macroscopic hematuria and symptoms typical of cystitis. Urinalysis was not consistent with urinary tract infection, though.
of patients Percentage (%) Glomerulonephritis 2 2.9 Chronic Renal Failure 13 19.11 Urinary tract infection 27 39.70 Renal transplantation 12 17.64 Cystitis 14 20.58 Real-Time PCR technique was done by using specific primers and probe were designed in this studied via using the complete sequence of human adenovirus hexon gene (Gen Bank: AB330092.1) from NCBI Gene-Bank data base and Primer3 plus online and provided through (Bioneer company, Korea).
The most common cause of cystitis in dogs is a bacterial infection, followed by bladder stones, tumours or polyps in the bladder and an abnormal anatomy -- especially in female dogs.
"In humans, a psychologically stressful event often precedes the onset of lower urinary tract discomfort due to interstitial cystitis, and stress also seems to be an important factor in the development of FIC in cats," the center says.