cystitis

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Related to cystitis glandularis: cystitis cystica

cystitis

(sĭstī`tĭs), common acute or chronic inflammation of the urinary bladderbladder, urinary,
muscular sac located in the pelvis that stores urine and contracts to expel it from the body. Urine enters the bladder from the kidneys through the ureters and is discharged from the body via the urethra. The bladder of the adult human can hold over a pint (0.
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. The disease occurs primarily in young women and frequently results from bacterial invasion of the urethra from the adjacent rectum, most commonly with normally occurring intestinal bacteria such as E. coli. It is also common in menopausal women; in them, the bacteria is transmitted from a vagina left more susceptible to bacterial overgrowth by changes in estrogen levels. In men cystitis rarely occurs without some other urinary tract disorder, such as kidney stones or, especially in older men, an enlarged prostate gland. Other predisposing factors are pregnancy, diabetes, and various systemic disorders.

Usual symptoms are frequent urination with burning pain, blood in the urine, and pain in the pubic area; chills and fever, back pain, and nausea may indicate kidney involvement. Treatment is with antibioticsantibiotic,
any of a variety of substances, usually obtained from microorganisms, that inhibit the growth of or destroy certain other microorganisms. Types of Antibiotics
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 and can also include the relief of any obstructions.

Interstitial cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder wall of unknown cause. It has the same symptoms as cystitis plus severe pelvic pain and frequency of urination (sometimes more than 60 times daily) that interferes with sleep, work, and daily life. No bacteria are present in the urine and it does not respond to antibiotics. It is diagnosed by the presence of lesions seen on the bladder wall during cystoscopy. Ninety percent of those affected are women. Diagnostic criteria were standardized only in 1988; it was often treated as a psychological disorder prior to that time. Treatment includes direct instillation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) into the bladder for relief of pain and inflammation, tricyclic antidepressantsantidepressant,
any of a wide range of drugs used to treat psychic depression. They are given to elevate mood, counter suicidal thoughts, and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
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 for pain relief, and a low-acid diet.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cystitis

 

inflammation of the urinary bladder caused by infection. The condition may be chronic or acute; various types of cystitis (such as catarrhal and hemorrhagic cystitis) are distinguished, depending on the changes that take place locally. Acute cystitis frequently follows chilling, especially in women. Symptoms include pain in the lower abdomen and sacrum, frequent and painful urination, and passage of blood at the end of urination. The body temperature is usually normal. The urine is found to contain albumin, leukocytes, erythrocytes, and bacteria. Acute cystitis lasts between one and two weeks. In cases of longer duration, cystoscopy and other examination methods are used to determine the possible cause of chronic cystitis—for example, adenoma in the prostate gland, gallstones, or uterine disorders.

Treatment includes the elimination of spicy foods from the diet, copious intake of fluids (water, fruit juices, fruit punches, and broths), antibacterial agents (including antibiotics and sul-fanilamides), antispasmodics, analgesics, and the application of heat to the lower abdomen (by means of sitz baths or hot-water bottles). Chronic cystitis is also treated locally: for example, antiinflammatory agents may be introduced in the bladder, or the latter may be disinfected by means of lavage.

REFERENCE

Gol’din, G. I. Tsistity. Moscow, 1960.

A. L. SHABAD

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

cystitis

[si′stīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of a fluid-filled organ, especially the urinary bladder.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cystitis

inflammation of the urinary bladder
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Cystitis glandularis: A controversial premalignant lesion.
Neodymium:YAG laser treatment of cystitis glandularis. J Urol 1988; 139:1298-9.
Under cystoscope, the inflammatory lesions on bladder were symmetrically distributed, mainly at the trigone or neck of the bladder; there were a few cases at the ureteric orifice and other regions were rarely invaded in our 130 cases of cystitis glandularis. There were no differences in the distribution and morphological characteristics of the bladder lesions between the 2 groups.
In the 15 male patients of cystitis glandularis without upper urinary tract obstruction, 7 of them also had benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Differential Diagnoses of Bladder Benign and Malignant Lesions With Glandular Differentiation, Other Than Secondary Adenocarcinoma Cystitis glandularis and Benign glandular cystitis cystica differentiation and cystic dilation in the von Brunn nests without cytologic atypia or infiltrating patterns.
A case of florid cystitis glandularis. Nat Clin Pract Urol 2007;4:341-5http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncpuro0814.
Cystitis glandularis forming a timorous lesion in the urinary bladder: A rare appearance of disease.
Histologic Mimickers of Bladder Epithelial Neoplasms Mimickers of urothelial carcinoma in situ Reactive urothelial atypia Radiation atypia Polyomavirus infection Mimickers of exophytic papillary urothelial neoplasms Papillary and polypoid cystitis Nephrogenic adenoma Mimickers of invasive carcinoma Inflammatory lesions Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia Von Brunn nests Cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis Nephrogenic adenoma Endometriosis and related lesions Paraganglia Ectopic prostatic tissue Table 3.
These authors found lymphoepithelial lesions in 1 case, which was the only case showing cystitis glandularis. In a review of the Mayo Clinic records for the last 56 years, Kempton et al[21] reported 6 cases of primary bladder lymphoma, all of which were considered of MALT type, stage IAE, and all of which received radiotherapy with or without surgery.
Lymphoepithelial lesions have been described only in the areas of cystitis glandularis in the cases described by Pawade et al and Kempton et al.
Within the differential are normal urothelial cells from deeper layers, florid intestinal metaplasia (cystitis glandularis), low-grade transitional cell carcinoma with glandular metaplasia, and nephrogenic metaplasia or so-called nephrogenic adenoma.
Prostatic epithelial proliferations and florid cystitis glandularis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of urine samples containing columnar epithelial cells.