Cytochalasin


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cytochalasin

[¦sīd·ō·kə′lā·sən]
(biochemistry)
One of a series of structurally related fungal metabolic products which, among other effects on biological systems, selectively and reversibly block cytokinesis while not affecting karyokinesis; the molecule with minor variations consists of a benzyl-substituted hydroaromatic isoindolone system, which in turn is fused to a small macrolide-like cyclic ring.

Cytochalasin

 

one of a group of related antibiotics produced by certain types of Fungi Imperfecti. Cytochalasins were isolated in 1967 by a British research group (S. B. Carter and coworkers). The cytochalasins that have been identified— designated A, B, C, D, E, and F—have the structural formula

and are differentiated by the side groups R1 and R2, representing different radicals.

Cytochalasins are crystal compounds with a molecular weight of 477 to 507 and a melting point of 182° to 270°C; they are insoluble in water but freely soluble in organic solvents. In a low concentration of 1 microgram per milliliter (μg/ml), cytochalasins inhibit the formation of an intracellular dividing membrane after the complete separation of the chromosomes that takes place in cell division, or mitosis, and thus lead to the formation of multinucleate cells. In concentrations of 10 μg/ml, cytochalasins cause the nucleus to be drawn out of the cell (enucleation). Another effect of cytochalasins is to block endocytosis in macrophages. The action of cytochalasins is reversible: upon their removal, endocytosis is reestablished; the nucleus, which having left the cell has remained connected to it by a cytoplasmic bridge, reenters the cell. Cytochalasins are believed to affect the microfilaments that are elements of the cell contraction system. Cytochalasins are used in research work in cytology and physiology.

REFERENCES

Carter, S. B. “Effects of Cytochalasins on Mammalian Cells.” Nature, 1967, vol. 213, no. 5073.
Carter, S. B. “The Cytochalasins as Research Tools in Cytology.” Endeavour, 1972, vol. 31, no. 113.

A. D. MOROZKIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Abbreviations AgNP: Silver nanoparticle BSO: Buthionine sulfoximine CDDP: Cisplatin, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) Cyto D: Cytochalasin D DLS: Dynamic light scattering DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid DRI: Dose reduction index ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Pa: Fraction affected FBS: Fetal bovine serum GSH: Glutathione GSSG: Glutathione disulfide H2DCF-DA : 2-7-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate MMR: Mismatch repair MTT: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide PBS: Phosphate-buffered saline PVP: Polyvinylpyrrolidone ROS: Reactive oxygen species TEM: Transmission electron microscopy.
Treatment with cytochalasin B totally prevented glucose uptake by the inhibition of the glucose transporters, as expected.
Treatment of the RA243 cell line (the cell line with the highest mean percentage of fluorescent cells) with cytochalasin D dramatically and significantly (P<0.05) reduced the average percentage of cells with internalized borreliae from 62% in the DMSO control to 16% in cells treated with cytochalasin D (data not shown).
Induced triploidy in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas: Optimal treatments with cytochalasin B depend on temperature.
The cytokinesis-block procedure using cytochalasin B arrests division of cytoplasm or cytokinesis without inhibiting nuclear division and enables cells that may express chromosome damage as MN to be accumulated and recognized as binucleated (BN) cells.
CHAPEL HILL, N.C., November 16, 2015 -- Researchers here have found that cytochalasin D, a naturally occurring substance found in mold, serves as a proxy to alter gene expression in the nuclei of mesenchymal stem cells to force them to become osteoblasts (bone cells) instead of fat cells.
CHAPEL HILL, N.C., November 16, 2015 --Researchers here have found that cytochalasin D, a naturally occurring substance found in mold, serves as a proxy to alter gene expression in the nuclei of mesenchymal stem cells to force them to become osteoblasts (bone cells) instead of fat cells.
CHAPEL HILL, N.C., November 16, 2015--Researchers here have found that cytochalasin D, a naturally occurring substance found in mold, serves as a proxy to alter gene expression in the nuclei of mesenchymal stem cells to force them to become osteoblasts (bone cells) instead of fat cells.
MN are counted in cells that have undergone a single division; however, cytokinesis is blocked by adding cytochalasin B, which results in binucleated (BN) cells.
(2004) isolated two phytotoxic compounds namely cytochalasin B and dihydrocytochalasins from culture filtrates of D.
Subsequently oocytes were washed three times and cultured in PZM3 with 10 g/ml of cytochalasin B (CB) and 10 g/ml of cycloheximide.
This extrinsically activated test includes the addition of a platelet inhibitor (cytochalasin D) to differentiate between hypofibrinogenemia and thrombocytopenia in bleeding patients who demonstrate a weak clot formation.