The syncyte formation, cytomixis, multivalents, and 2n pollen grains provide an insight into the possible mechanism of overall intraspecific or intrageneric polyploidization in plants.
Some low frequency of large sized PMCs (1.24%) in P-1 at early prophase was also seen with apparently double the chromatin mass and with two nucleoli (Figure 1(g)) which indicates that the 4x PMCs formation must have resulted from cell fusion or cytomixis in premeiotic mitosis.
Different experts held different factors responsible for cytomixis such as the physiological factor , temperature , stress factors coupled with genetic control , and direct genetic control [32, 33].
Occurrence of diploid and polyploidy microspores in Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae) is the result of cytomixis. Afr.
Cytomixis in shoot apex of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.].
Besides new chromosome reports and additional cytotypes, in some of the species meiosis was abnormal and was characterized by the presence of multivalents and/or univalents, impaired synapsis, cytomixis, and its associated meiotic aberrations such as laggards and bridges, chromatin stickiness, pycnotic chromatin, irregular distribution of chromosomes, and micronuclei at telophases/sporads consequently leading to abnormal microsporogenesis and variable amount of pollen sterility (Figures 5(h)-5(p)).
Cytomixis which involves the interpollen mother cell transfer of chromatin material through narrow and broad cytomictic channels is existent in Astragalus bicuspis Fischer (n = 8), A.
Meiotic abnormalities have been recorded in almost all the studied populations of different species in the form of cytomixis, chromatin stickiness, unoriented bivalent, bridges, laggards, or multipolarity at different stages of meiosis (Tables 3 and 4, Figures 2(a)-2(k)).
The phenomenon of inter-PMC migration of chromatin/chromosome between/among the contiguous meiocytes through cytomictic channels is termed as cytomixis (coined by Gates ).
Cytomixis in pollen cells of Urochloa panicoides P.
Cytomixis as a manifestation of pathological changes after the application of trifluraline.
Effect of gamma irradiation intensities on mitotic irregularities was assessed in terms of the chromosome laggards and bridge, binucleated cells, chromosome fragmented, asynchronous nuclei, cytomixis
, desynapsis, and micronucleus (Table 6 and Figure 5).