cytosine


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Related to cytosine: cytidine

cytosine

(sī`tōsēn'), organic base of the pyrimidinepyrimidine
, type of organic base found in certain coenzymes and in the nucleic acids of plant and animal tissue. The three major pyrimidines of almost universal distribution in living systems are cytosine, thymine, and uracil.
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 family. It was isolated from the nucleic acidnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
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 of calf thymus tissue in 1894. A suggested structure for cytosine, published in 1903, was confirmed in the same year when that base was synthesized in the laboratory. Combined with the sugar ribose in glycosidic linkage, cytosine forms a derivative called cytidine (a nucleoside), which in turn can be phosphorylated with from one to three phosphoric acid groups, yielding the three nucleotidesnucleotide
, organic substance that serves as a monomer in forming nucleic acids. Nucleotides consist of either a purine or a pyrimidine base, a ribose or deoxyribose, and a phosphate group. Adenosine triphosphate serves as the principle energy carrier for the cell's reactions.
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 CMP (cytidine monophosphate), CDP (cytidine diphosphate), and CTP (cytidine triphosphate). Analogous nucleosides and nucleotides are formed from cytosine and deoxyribose. The nucleoside derivatives of cytosine perform important functions in cellular metabolism. CTP acts as a coenzymecoenzyme
, any one of a group of relatively small organic molecules required for the catalytic function of certain enzymes. A coenzyme may either be attached by covalent bonds to a particular enzyme or exist freely in solution, but in either case it participates intimately in
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 in both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; it can readily donate one of its phosphate groups to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to form adenosine triphosphateadenosine triphosphate
(ATP) , organic compound composed of adenine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups. ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as photosynthesis, muscle contraction, and the synthesis of
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 (ATP), an extremely important intermediate in the transfer of chemical energy in living systems. CTP is the source of the cytidine found in ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) is the source of the deoxycytidine in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Thus cytosine is intimately involved in the preservation and transfer of genetic information.

Cytosine

 

(also 2-hydroxy-6-aminopyrimidine), a natural organic compound. A pyrimidine base, cytosine occurs as white crystals or thin, lustrous platelets. Its molecular weight is 111.1. It is found in all living cells as a component of nucleotides—that is, compounds that form nucleic acids, coenzymes, and certain other biologically active substances. The nucleoside cytidine consists of cytosine and the carbohydrate D-ribose.

cytosine

[′sīd·ə‚sēn]
(biochemistry)
C4H5ON3 A pyrimidine occurring as a fundamental unit or base of nucleic acids.
References in periodicals archive ?
Please note that, in this analysis, we used the total number of cytosine sites reported from MeRanTK rather than the total number of all 4 types of nucleotides.
Cytosine is converted to uracil, most probably at the nucleotide or nucleoside stage [15].
In the index patient (IV-8) of this MCKD family, the MUC1 -VNTR single cytosine insertion was detected in 7/96 clones in the first screening [Figure 2]c.
The MS-HRM PCR products were then pyrosequenced to quantify the levels of cytosine methylation (Fig.
As reported in Figure 3, these conditions allow to separate the cytosine peak from the contaminant peak in the right (identified with a black arrow) and to obtain a good reproducibility, as shown with five consecutive runs of hydrolysed DNA.
The patterns A1-A3 represented cytosine demethylation and the patterns B1-B3 indicated cytosinemethylation events respectively.
5-mC can be further modified to 5-hydroxymethyl Cytosine (5-hmC) by the TET family of methyl-cytosine dioxygenases.
In this paper we present a semiclassical dynamics simulation study for the laser-induced excitation and deactivation of two [pi]-stacked cytosine molecules.
The genotype A generally has cytosine (C) at position 1858, according to the studies by De Castro et al.
Dmitry Gordenin, Ph.D., corresponding author of the paper, said that scientists knew the main functions of APOBEC cytosine deaminases were to inactivate viruses that attack the body and prevent ancient viruses present in the human genome from moving around and causing disrupting mutations.