chemotherapy

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chemotherapy

(kē'mōthĕr`əpē), treatment of disease with chemicals or drugsdrugs,
substances used in medicine either externally or internally for curing, alleviating, or preventing a disease or deficiency. At the turn of the century only a few medically effective substances were widely used scientifically, among them ether, morphine, digitalis,
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. One chemotherapeutic approach is the development of selectively toxic substances, i.e., substances that can destroy or inhibit infecting organisms or, as in cancer, malignant tissue, but do not damage normal host tissue. In treating infection, selectively toxic agents may block a biochemical reaction necessary to the viability of the pathogen but not to that of the host; for example, penicillinpenicillin,
any of a group of chemically similar substances obtained from molds of the genus Penicillium that were the first antibiotic agents to be used successfully in the treatment of bacterial infections in humans.
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 blocks synthesis of bacterial cell walls, a component animal cells lack. Other chemotherapeutic substances differentially affect biochemical reactions in different tissues; thus antimetabolites such as methotrexate and CytoxanCytoxan
, trade name for the drug cyclophosphamide, used to inhibit growth of tumors and rapidly proliferating cells. It is used in the treatment of leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and lymphosarcoma and other solid tumors.
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 are more toxic to rapidly proliferating cells such as those associated with cancer than to normal cells. Other drugs act in various ways to produce effects that initiate or enhance some normal body function; for instance, neostigmine blocks the action of an enzyme limiting transmission of nerve impulses and thereby acts as a nervous system stimulant. The usefulness of chemotherapeutic agents also depends on their pharmacological action, e.g., their rate of absorption, rapidity of action and rate of excretion, degree of storage in the body, effects of products of their metabolic breakdown, and potential for causing hypersensitivityhypersensitivity,
heightened response in a body tissue to an antigen or foreign substance. The body normally responds to an antigen by producing specific antibodies against it. The antibodies impart immunity for any later exposure to that antigen.
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 reactions. Some drugs are given prophylactically, to prevent infection, e.g., penicillin is given to rheumatic fever patients to prevent reinfection by the causative organism, the streptococcal bacterium.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Chemotherapy

 

the use of drugs to act on the causative agents of infectious and parasitic diseases and on tumor cells. The treatment of disease by chemical agents was first practiced early in the 20th century, after P. Ehrlich demonstrated the directed synthesis of agents capable of acting on microorganisms. Ehrlich used salvarsan (the first potent agent in chemotherapy) in 1909 and established the principal mechanisms of the specific action of chemical agents.

REFERENCES

Ehrlich, P. Materialy k ucheniiu o khimioterapii. St. Petersburg, 1911. (Translated from German.)
Khimioterapiia infektsionnykh boleznei (collection of articles). Moscow, 1958.
Strategiia khimioterapii. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from English.)
Larionov, L. F. Khimioterapiia zlokachestvennykh opukholei. Moscow, 1962.
Votchal, B. E. Ocherki klinicheskoi farmakologii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1965.
Kassirskii, I. A., and Iu. L. Milevskaia. Ocherki sovremennoi klinicheskoi terapii, 2nd ed. Tashkent, 1970.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

chemotherapy

[‚kē·mō′ther·ə·pē]
(medicine)
Administering chemical substances for treatment of disease, especially cancer and diseases caused by parasites.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

chemotherapy

treatment of disease, esp cancer, by means of chemical agents
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Thirty years ago, nurses working in oncology wards would complain of having constantly sore eyes and yellow hands from working with cytotoxic drugs. Thankfully, times have changed and nurses can now expect to minimise exposure to these toxic chemicals, thanks to a new set of guidelines put together in part by one NSWNA member, oncology CNC Vivienne Freeman from Royal North Shore Hospital.
HCWH said health care waste and byproducts could lead to sharps-inflicted injuries; toxic exposure to pharmaceutical products, such as antibiotics and cytotoxic drugs released into the surrounding environment, and to substances such as mercury or dioxins, during the handling or burning of health care waste.
ADCs are highly potent biopharmaceutical drugs that link complex biological molecules like mAbs with cytotoxic drugs. ADCs have emerged as a promising class of anti-cancer therapeutics due to their high specificity in delivering cytotoxic/ HPAPI drugs to target cells while significantly reducing the side-effects compared to chemotherapies.
Adjuvant treatment options include radiotherapy; a wait-and-see policy; and administration of tamoxifen, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and cytotoxic drugs. Hormone therapy may have a significant role, considering the possible hormonal etiopathogenesis of the condition.
The committees would ensure disposal of mercury waste from broken clinical equipment and spillage and cadmium waste from discarded batteries, medical supplies, hospital, clinics, laboratories and veterinary facilities, waste blood, tissue, organs of human and animal bodies in addition to cytotoxic drugs, vomitus feces, syringes, vials, pharmaceutical waste, discarded solid, liquid and gaseous chemicals from diagnostic and experimental work and from cleaning and disinfecting procedures, radioactive wastes, infectious waste, pathogen such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi, needles, syringes, scalpels, infusion sets, saw, knives and blades.
Even when metastasis has begun, but is not yet evident radiologically, cancers can be cured in up to 50 percent of cases with therapies such as cytotoxic drugs and immunotherapy.
During the development of tamoxifen resistance, levels of expression and activation of several key signaling molecules such as EGFR and AKT are increased, given that increased levels of these proteins, in particularly, EGFR are generally associated with tumors that have increased resistance to cytotoxic drugs. In addition to increased expression of EGFR and c-erbB2, increased activation of these proteins was also observed, with clearly increased levels of phosphorylation of both molecules detected by Western blotting (Figure 5).
LIDDS has active development projects where NanoZolid is combined with antiandrogens, cytotoxic drugs and immuno-active agents.
We did not advise any systemic chemotherapy with cytotoxic drugs due to expected high risk of profound toxicity, as the metabolizing potential for cytotoxic drugs in this patient is unknown.
Uttar Pradesh, March 24 -- Site specific antibodies conjugated to cytotoxic drugs - the answer to cancer when they were first developed.
RA is treated with painkillers and cytotoxic drugs to damp down the autoimmune process.

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