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, czar
1. (until 1917) the emperor of Russia
2. Informal a public official charged with responsibility for dealing with a certain problem or issue
3. (formerly) any of several S Slavonic rulers, such as any of the princes of Serbia in the 14th century
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also, czar; from the latin caesar, the title used by the Roman emperors), in Russia and Bulgaria, the official title of the monarch. In Russia the title of tsar was first adopted by Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) in 1547. From 1721 the Russian tsars adopted the title of emperor. In Bulgaria the monarchs bore the title of tsar from the end of the 19th century to the proclamation of the People’s Republic in 1946.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
"czardoms," while int egrating efforts across government.
Perestroika divides, and in the conservative camp, judging by the outbursts of some supporters of Pamyat ("Memory'), there are people hankering after the good old days of czardom with its knout and its pogroms.
ANKARA, Apr 6, 2010 (TUR) -- "Russia at the Ottoman Palace" exhibition will bring diplomatic relations between the Ottoman Empire and Czardom Russia, covering almost 500 years, to daylight, Turkey's Culture & Tourism Ministry said on Tuesday.