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, czar
1. (until 1917) the emperor of Russia
2. Informal a public official charged with responsibility for dealing with a certain problem or issue
3. (formerly) any of several S Slavonic rulers, such as any of the princes of Serbia in the 14th century



(also, czar; from the latin caesar, the title used by the Roman emperors), in Russia and Bulgaria, the official title of the monarch. In Russia the title of tsar was first adopted by Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) in 1547. From 1721 the Russian tsars adopted the title of emperor. In Bulgaria the monarchs bore the title of tsar from the end of the 19th century to the proclamation of the People’s Republic in 1946.

References in periodicals archive ?
For them, kormlenie was a legitimate behavior sanctioned and approved by czarism.
3) Hazy about specific historical circumstances, free of concrete alternatives to czarism, the Catechism reads like a document produced by some desperate contemporary movement, the Khmer Rouge or the Shining Path.
Try to picture Lenin saying, "If czarism works, I'll look at it.
Ukrainka was active in the Ukrainian struggle against czarism and joined Ukrainian Marxist organizations, translating the Communist Manifesto into Ukrainian in 1902.
This is no justification for the absorption of countries which, as in the case of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, had achieved independence as a result of the downfall of Czarism.
It is the struggle of democracy versus czarism, even if for a few years czarism called itself Communism.
Notwithstanding the promising initial reforms of President Mikheil Saakashvili, in general terms, the revolutionary eastern democracies have been characterized by eccentric forms of czarism, instability, war, and profligate spending on subsidies and pensions (in Ukraine) and on weapons and thuggish security services (in Georgia).
The French Revolution in 1789 followed, as did the Russian Revolution against Czarism in 1917.
Gorbachev found his model in the early Soviet years, before Lenin created the one-party dictatorship and Stalin the command economy, while Yeltsin, as I have recently shown ("The Process of Revolution in Russia," Problems of Post-Communism, May-June 1999), looked back to the semiconstitutional czarism of 1905.
When facing such obvious injustices as France's ancien regime, Russian czarism, or our own 1040 form, men and women of restrained temperament have an understandable urge toward random and immediate violence - and the presumption that the destruction of the present unsatisfactory oppression could only be followed by something better.
Last year a Russian poll duly confirmed this, with the Brezhnev years shoulder to shoulder with late czarism as a time of halcyon hue, compared with Boris Yeltsin's forced march toward today's Brazilian economy.