daimyo


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Related to daimyo: Oda Nobunaga, Tokugawa Ieyasu

daimyo

(dī`myô) [Jap.,=great name], the great feudal landholders of Japan, the territorial barons as distinguished from the kuge, or court nobles. Great tax-free estates were built up from the 8th cent. onward by the alienation of lands to members of the imperial family who could not be supported at court. These estates were administered by territorial barons, or the daimyo. By the 12th cent. certain daimyo had become more powerful than the emperor himself. One, YoritomoYoritomo
(Yoritomo Minamoto) , 1148–99, Japanese warrior and dictator, founder of the Kamakura shogunate. After a prolonged struggle he led his clan, the Minamoto, to victory over the Taira in 1185.
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, became the first shogunshogun
, title of the feudal military administrator who from the 12th cent. to the 19th cent. was, as the emperor's military deputy, the actual ruler of Japan. The title itself, Sei-i-tai Shogun [barbarian-subduing generalissimo], dates back to 794 and originally meant commander
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 and forcefully revised this situation by setting up a centralized feudal system. The power of the shogun disintegrated during the fierce civil wars of the 14th, 15th, and 16th cent., but in the early 17th cent. IeyasuIeyasu
(Ieyasu Tokugawa) , 1542–1616, Japanese warrior and dictator. A gifted leader and brilliant general, he founded the Tokugawa shogunate. Early in his career he helped Nobunaga and Hideyoshi unify Japan.
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 completed the reunification of Japan. The daimyo who supported Ieyasu before the decisive battle of Sekigahara (1600) became the fudai, or hereditary vassals, and his opponents were known as tozama, or outside lords. The tozama, who controlled the rich western fiefs, were generally viewed with suspicion by the shogun and were excluded from office in the central government. Ieyasu's descendants, the TokugawaTokugawa
, family that held the shogunate (see shogun) and controlled Japan from 1603 to 1867. Founded by Ieyasu, the Tokugawa regime was a centralized feudalism. The Tokugawa themselves held approximately one fourth of the country in strategically located parcels, which they
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 shoguns, deployed the daimyo and shifted their fiefs to retain power in the central government. In the 18th and early 19th cent. the daimyo, with their tastes for luxury and need for show in long stays at the court, were hard pressed by the limits of their incomes (in general, tax revenue from peasants and merchants in their fief). They tended to sink deeper and deeper in debt, especially to the merchants of Tokyo and Osaka, while their social and economic usefulness approached the vanishing point. The daimyo were advised by a council of elders consisting of their highest-ranking vassals. The civil and military administration of the daimyo domains were staffed by the samurai. Pressured by their advisers, who argued that the Tokugawa regime was too weak to counter the Western threat, tozama barons of W Japan (notably Satsuma, Choshu, Tosa, and Hizen) joined the imperial court to overthrow the shogun in the Meiji restorationMeiji restoration,
The term refers to both the events of 1868 that led to the "restoration" of power to the emperor and the entire period of revolutionary changes that coincided with the Meiji emperor's reign (1868–1912).
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 (1868). Convinced of the need to establish a centralized administration, these daimyo returned their fiefs to the emperor (1869). By 1871 all daimyo had lost their feudal privileges.
References in periodicals archive ?
Samurai who were not retained by any daimyo, or who had no 'client' were called 'ronin' and they usually traveled around to peddle their skills hoping that some feudal lord might see fit to hire them.
In the wake of the Boshin War, Tadahiro, a relatively progressive daimyo, used the remuneration for his military contributions to fund foreign study for a total of eight young men from his domain--an especially large number given Sadowara's small size.
Daimyo armour, 18th century, Japan, iron, lacquer, leather, silk, wood.
Llamado Chicatora en los documentos, (51) este joven fue el hijo adoptivo de un hermano de la mujer del daimyo. Esta es referida en las fuentes jesuitas como Jezabel, en alusion a la esposa de Ahab retratada en el Antiguo Testamento por su aversion a los profetas de Yave y su absoluto fanatismo hacia el idolo Baal.
(69) "Los grandes senores daimyo (...) tenian dominios cuyo producto anual segun la estimacion oficial en terminos de arroz era de mas de 10.000 koku".
Shigemasa was succeeded by his son Matsukura Nagato-no-kami Katsuie, who proved to be as much of a tyrant and enemy of Christianity as his father, and it is during Katsuie's reign as daimyo of Shimabara that we encounter the hatching of the final scheme to invade the Philippines.
By the time Koriyama was promoted from a village to a town in 1824, it already served as a post station on the Oshu Kaido road, equipped with toiyaba transport stations and lodgings for the daimyo processions that traveled under the system of sankin kotai (alternate-year residence in Edo), and bustled with the movement of goods and the comings and goings of daimyo and merchants alike (Photo 1).
The book chronicles the conversion of the local Daimyo to Christianity, the establishment of Nagasaki as a safe harbor for Portuguese traders, merchants, and missionaries, the eighty-year run of Nagasaki as a European city in Japan, and its eventual fall.
El ganador, Tokugawa Ieyasu, privo a Mori Terumoto de la mayoria de sus feudos, incluido Hiroshima, cediendo la provincia de Aki a Fukushima Masanori un daimyo que habia apoyado a Tokugawa.
--cultural elements from the historical past: such as noble titles and various civil, court or military ranks (shogun, daimyo, hatamoto etc.), the Japanese historical periods (Genroku, Man'en, Taisho etc.), historical provinces (Omi, Echizen, Izumo, Bizen etc.)
The volume also includes a two-part mystery featuring fan-favorite Inspector Ishida, and "The Ice Runners." We take ice for granted; many of us have refrigerators with ice makers and dispensers, but in seventeenth-century Japan, a daimyo (samurai leader) could earn much favor by serving ice.
One of the two leading Japanese commanders in the invasion was a Christian who commanded many Japanese Christian daimyo (territorial lords) and soldiers.