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Related to dairying: passive immunity, fisheries, Dairy farms


business of producing, processing, and distributing milk and milk products. Ninety percent of the world's milk is obtained from cows; the remainder comes from goats, buffaloes, sheep, reindeer, yaks, and other ruminants. In the United States, dairy products account for nearly 16% of the food consumed annually. California, Wisconsin, New York, Pennsylvania, and Minnesota are the top five dairy states. About 17% of the milk produced is made into butterbutter,
dairy product obtained by churning the fat from milk until it solidifies. In most areas the milk of cows is the basis, but elsewhere that of goats, sheep, and mares has been used. Butter was known by 2000 B.C.
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, 35%–40% is sold as beverage milkmilk,
liquid secreted by the mammary glands of female mammals as food for their young. The milk of the cow is most widely used by humans, but the milk of the mare, goat, ewe, buffalo, camel, ass, zebra, reindeer, llama, and yak is also used.
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, and the remainder is devoted to farm uses and the making of cheesecheese,
food known from ancient times and consisting of the curd of milk separated from the whey. The Production of Cheese

The milk of various animals has been used in the making of cheese: the milk of mares and goats by the ancient Greeks, camel's milk by the
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, concentrated milks, ice cream, dried milk solids (e.g., lactoselactose
or milk sugar,
white crystalline disaccharide (see carbohydrate). It has the same empirical formula (C12H22O11) as sucrose (cane sugar) and maltose but differs from both in structure (see isomer).
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 and caseincasein
, well-defined group of proteins found in milk, constituting about 80% of the proteins in cow's milk, but only 40% in human milk. Casein is a remarkably efficient nutrient, supplying not only essential amino acids, but also some carbohydrates and the inorganic elements
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), yogurt and sour cream, and other processed products. About 60% of total beverage milk sold is low-fat or skim milk, which surpassed whole milk in sales in 1987.

The development of modern dairying, which began around 1850, has been driven by the growth of urban markets and by scientific, technological, and economic factors: the invention of specialized machines, notably the cream separator (see separator, creamseparator, cream,
dairy machine used to separate fresh whole milk into cream and skim milk. Formerly the separation was made by the gravity method, allowing the cream to rise to the top of a pan and then skimming it off. C. G.
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) and mechanized milking machines (and more recently automatic, or robotic, milking machines); research in chemistry, physics, and bacteriology; the discovery of pasteurizationpasteurization
, partial sterilization of liquids such as milk, orange juice, wine, and beer, as well as cheese, to destroy disease-causing and other undesirable organisms.
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; the introduction of the test devised by American agricultural chemist S. M. Babcock for determining the fat content of milk; improved refrigeration and transportation; the discovery of new uses for the byproducts of milk processing; and increased milk productivity resulting from scientific feeding of cattlecattle,
name for the ruminant mammals of the genus Bos, and particularly those of the domesticated species, Bos taurus and B. indica. The term oxen, broadly used, refers also to closely related animals, such as the buffalo and the bison.
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 and the application of advanced biotechnology to breeding. Traditional small-scale dairy farms have increasingly been replaced by larger operations with herds of 1,000 cows or more.


See G. Schmidt and L. D. Van Vleck, Principles of Dairy Science (1988); K. Russell and K. Slater, The Principles of Dairy Farming (11th ed. 1991).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
References in periodicals archive ?
'We have farmers and entrepreneurs who made good in carabao dairying and in silage-making,' he said.
Manager Emily Egan said: "Entrepreneurs in Dairying programme is currently running at Llysfasi and Glynllifon Colleges delivering training in specialist areas to those without a future on a family unit farm, yet with ambitions to farm in their own right.
The Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying said in its presentation that to address the supply- demand gap concerning animal protein foods, artificial insemination and other technologies need to be encouraged to boost animal yields, sources said.
It is a great tribute to all of our milk producers who are committed to quality and excellence in dairying."
Writing with bucolic simplicity, the author evokes an idyllic atmosphere, but regrets not being able to include in his story the smells "that are the real stuff of dairying" and the "music of lowing cows."
They cover cassava in West and Southern Africa, hybrid maize in Eastern and Southern Africa, smallholder cotton in Mali 1960-2006, horticultural exports from Kenya and Cote d'Ivoire, smallholder dairying in Eastern Africa, and sustainable soil fertility management systems.
"Canterbury is the fastest-growing dairying region in New Zealand.
Kurd said the overall contribution of dairying to the national economy is to the tune of Rs 540 billion with 97 percent of it being informal non-documented economic activity.
This is a geographic study of India's cooperative dairying program, which was the centerpiece of national dairy development in India from the 1970s until the liberalization of the dairy sector in the 1990s.
Ground was broken at Hoard's Dairyman Farm, making way for the expansion of an operation that for more than a century has served as a practical research and demonstration facility devoted to the spread of better dairying practices.
has debuted Lionza, a semi-hard, savory and fragrant cheese inspired by the town in Switzerland's Italian sector where owner John Fiscalini's family has been dairying and making cheese for more than 300 years.
The aim of the debates is to give farmers more insight into present and future prospects for dairying, and to stimulate debate into how the industry can take its future into its own hands, said Richard George, a senior economist from the Milk Development Council.