conducted a parametric study on short span bridges crossed by a two-degree-of-freedom (dof) maglev vehicle modeled with passive spring and dashpot
coefficients, c, that were used in the analysis are listed in the following Table 3.
Classical constitutive modeling is the diverse combination of springs and dashpots
[12-16], for example, the Maxwell (M) and Kelvin (K) models, Burger model, generalized Maxwell model (GMM), and other models [17, 18].
The Model 472 ConstaLoader features an oil-less air dashpot
which is said to give a smooth, controlled descent for making the most accurate readings with the company's ASTM Type A, B or O durometers.
Three rheological quadratic elements in series are considered in VEP model: a spring (elastic element; reversible process), a dashpot
(viscous element; nonreversible, time-dependent process), and a slider (plastic element and nonreversible, time-independent process) .
2, the t is the time, [E.sub.M] and [[eta].sub.M] are respectively the spring modulus and dashpot
viscosity of the Maxwell element, the [E.sub.K] and [[eta].sub.K] are the respective spring modulus and viscosity of the dashpot
in KV element.
The linear viscoelastic impact model, also known as Kelvin-Voigt model, is one of the most commonly used models in structural pounding and consists of a linear impact spring and a viscous impact dashpot
. The Hertz-damp model and Kelvin-Voigt model are shown in Figure 2.
The response of the Maxwell model spring is the transient elastic response, while that of the combined Maxwell and Voigt model dashpot
's are the time dependent viscous response.
Where E(t) is the relaxation modulus of epoxy resin, [k.sub.0] is the spring stiffness, [k.sub.i] and [[eta].sub.i] are the spring stiffness and dashpot
viscosity of the ;th Maxwell element, respectively, [[tau].sub.i] is the relaxation time, and N is the number of Maxwell elements.
In their model the structure is modelled as an elastoplastic single-degree-of-freedom system (SDOF) and the soil beneath the structure is modelled by a discrete model combining different spring and dashpot