Deamination

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deamination

[dē‚am·ə′nā·shən]
(organic chemistry)
Removal of an amino group from a molecule.

Deamination

 

the elimination of an amino group (NH2) from organic compounds. Deamination is accompanied by the substitution of some other group, such as H, OH, OR, or Hal, for the amino group or by the formation of a double bond. In particular, deamination is brought about by the action of nitrous acid on primary amines. In this reaction, acyclic amines yield alcohols (I) and olefins (II), for example:

The deamination of alicyclic amines is accompanied by ring expansion or contraction. In the presence of strong inorganic acids, aromatic amines and nitrous acid yield diazonium salts. Such reactions as hydrolysis, hydrogenolysis, decomposition of quaternary ammonium salts, and pyrolytic reactions also result in deamination.

Deamination plays an important part in the life processes of animals, plants, and microorganisms. Oxidative deamination, with the formation of ammonia and α-keto acids, is characteristic of d-amino acids. Amines also undergo oxidative deamination. Except for glutamate dehydrogenase, which deaminates L-glutamic acid, oxidases of natural amino acids are not very active in animal tissues. Therefore, most L-amino acids undergo indirect deamination by means of prior transamination, with the formation of glutamic acid, which then undergoes oxidative deamination or other transformations. Other types of deamination are reductive, hydrolytic (deamination of amino derivatives of purines, pyrimidines, and sugars), and intramolecular (histidine deamination), which occur mainly in microorganisms.

REFERENCE

Zbarskii, B. I., I. I. Ivanov, and S. R. Mardashev. Biologicheskaia khimiia, 4th ed. Leningrad, 1965.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, ammonia-N was linearly increased as the SSP infusion rate increased, indicating a portion of the infused SSP was degraded and deaminated to ammonia.
1998) claimed that when ATP consumption exceeds its supply in a human body, the adenine nucleotide pool is partly deaminated, and this consequently forms IMP and ammonia.
Treatment of the DNA with sodium bisulfite converts the epigenetic difference between methylated and unmethylated cytosine into a single-base variation of the C/T type (5-methylcytosine remains unaltered, whereas cytosine is selectively deaminated to uracil and amplified as thymidine).
In fact, because of the presence of another His in the neighborhood, Asn-50 is rapidly deaminated into an Asp, and by protein chemistry methods only Asp is found.
The deaminated sialic acid 2-keto-3deoxy-d-glycero-d-galactonononic acid (KDN) was used as an internal standard (IS) (17, 22) (see Fig.
A naturally occurring deaminated neuraminic acid, 3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nonulosonic acid (KDN).
AMP is usually deaminated in most tissues by AMP deaminase and, to a lesser extent, by the ADA degradation pathway.
The surviving glutamine butyl ester is deaminated in acidic solution to a protonated form of pyroglutamic acid butyl ester in the electrospray source of the MS/MS.
The cross-reactivity of 22-kDa recombinant GH, 22-kDa dimer GH, 22-kDa deaminated GH, 22-kDa pituitary GH, and 20-kDa recombinant GH (generously donated by Novo Nordisk, Gentofte, Denmark), and 17-kDa (GH 44-191) and 5-kDa GH (GH 1-43) (generously donated by Urban J.
Deactivation of circulating 3-O-methylated catecholamines followed by sulfoconjugation and excretion suggests high specificity and sensitivity for urinary total metanephrines, compared with oxidatively deaminated catecholamine metabolites.