Rock burst is a sudden and violent release of the elastic deformation energy
accumulated in the rock mass under certain conditions, which causes the rock to burst and eject (Li et al., 2012; Pan et al., 2014).
Al, Fe, can considerably decrease the deformation energy
hence as well the remaining motivating force for primary recrystallization through the preceding recovery period." 
1-5 are following: B = specimen thickness (mm), W = specimen width (mm), a = initial length of notch (mm), [a.sub.eff] = the effective crack length (mm), [A.sub.el]; [A.sub.pl] = elastic and plastic parts of initial deformation energy
The deformation energy
increased with the deformation of the material, which led to [F.sub.r] increase.
When the surrounding rock deformation is large, CRLB resistance can be kept constant and the deformation energy
of the surrounding rock can be absorbed by CRLD; hence, CRLD can still play a good supporting effect when the surrounding rock is under large deformation state.
In addition, deformation energy
gets stored in the alloy and a strengthening phase can be quickly precipitated during aging.
Recall that, in (17), we see that total deformation energy
due to K-L and R-M models contains membrane deformation energy
[E.sub.ee] and bending deformation energy
[E.sub.kk]; that is, [E.sup.R-M] = [E.sub.ee] + [E.sub.kk].
The dough containing the cottonseed flour and wheat flour blend exhibited higher tenacity, lower extensibility and deformation energy
. However, proteases lessened these characteristics.
Theoretical approaches to the deformation energy
can be divided into two categories; Dynamic calculations to find the shape of the ground state (or even of excited states) and static calculations by determining the absolute minimum (ground state) or multiple minima (shape isomers) in the potential energy surface (PES) for a given nucleus.
Therefore, we conducted this experimental study and measured the toughness indices ([I.sub.5], [I.sub.10], [I.sub.20], [I.sub.30]), variation coefficients of bearing capacity, deformation energy
, and equivalent flexure strength of the beam specimens of steel fiber reinforced high performance concrete containing nano-Si[O.sub.2] particles and fly ash to reveal the effect of steel fibers on flexural toughness of high performance concrete containing nano-Si[O.sub.2] and fly ash.