investigated the effects of water on permanent deformation potential by using APA and indicated that APA testing form, preconditioning conditions, and the freezing and thawing cycle times are the main universal reasons that cause a greater extent of deformation in wet rut compared with dry rut .
He, "Effects of water on permanent deformation potential of hot-mix asphalt," China Journal of Highway and Transport, vol.
[B.sub.i] is the average deformation potential
accounting for coupling between the system and the mechanical stress applied; [E.sub.i] and [E.sub.d] are the most probable activation energy and the width of its distribution; [N.sub.i] is the total number of RCs of i-th species per unit volume; c is the sound velocity and i = 1, 2 is the component number.
Little, "Analysis of the influence of low density polyethylene modification (Novophalt) of asphalt concrete on mixture shear strength and creep deformation potential
," Polymer Modified Asphalt Binders, ASTM STP1108, K.R.
He includes structural properties, thermal properties, elastic properties, lattice dynamic properties, collective effects and response characteristics, energy-band structures and gaps, energy- band effective masses, deformation potentials
, electron affinity and Schottky barrier height, various optical properties and carrier transport systems.