degree, academic

degree, academic,

title bestowed upon a student on the fulfillment of certain requirements or given as an honor to an eminent person. The practice of awarding degrees originated in the universities of medieval Europe. The first known degree, granted to doctoral candidates in civil law, was awarded in Italy at the Univ. of Bologna during the 12th cent. From Italy the practice spread throughout Europe, and in the 13th cent. the first bachelor's degree was awarded at the Univ. of Paris. By the time the first colleges were opened in the American colonies, the process of granting degrees was firmly established. Originally there were only a few types of degrees offered by American schools. Today, however, approximately 1,500 types of degrees are granted by academic institutions in the United States. The most common degrees conferred in American universities are Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) or of Science (B.S.), at the end of an undergraduate liberal arts or science course, and Master of Arts (M.A.) or of Science (M.S.), at the end of a prescribed postgraduate course in liberal arts or in science. The highest degree conferred by a university is the doctorate: Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), of Medicine (M.D.), of Divinity (D.D.), of Laws (LL.D.).

There are numerous other degrees given less frequently, including purely honorary awards such as Doctor of Literature (Litt.D.). Occasionally, traditional degrees are replaced by newer ones. During the 1960s, for example, most American law schools replaced the Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) with the Juris Doctor (J.D.), even though the actual requirements for the law degree remained substantially the same. The requirements for degrees differ in different institutions. The gowns and insignia worn at academic convocations indicate the degree attained by the wearer or the degree for which he is a candidate; they also indicate the institution awarding the degree.

References in periodicals archive ?
Unfortunately, in Pakistan, the concept of sustaining dreams, building visions and creating value is non-existent especially when the idea comes from someone who holds no degree, academic worth or corporate status.
a sample of the author's electronic textbook on digital media in a complete set in duplicate or a hyperlink to the specified sample on the Internet; reviews (no less than two specialists of the relevant field of knowledge); the author's response to the comments of the reviewers (if any); information about the authors (name, scientific degree, academic rank (if any));
Findings, presented in several data tables, provide a benchmarking resource for comparing salary data on a calendar year basis by numerous characteristics of deans including title, highest earned degree, academic rank, tenure status, and years in current deanship.
a copy of the work record book (except for cases when the work (work) activity is carried out for the first time), certified by a notary or a staff service at the place of work (service), or other documents confirming the work (service) activity of a citizen; copies of documents on education and qualifications, as well as at the request of a citizen copies of documents confirming the increase or appropriation of qualifications based on the results of additional vocational education, documents on conferring a scientific degree, academic title, certified by a notary or staff service at the place of work (service); a document on the absence of a citizen of a disease that prevents entry into the civil service or its passage (Form No.