degree of freedom


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Degree of freedom (mechanics)

Any one of the number of independent ways in which the space configuration of a mechanical system may change. A material particle confined to a line in space can be displaced only along the line, and therefore has one degree of freedom. A particle confined to a surface can be displaced in two perpendicular directions and accordingly has two degrees of freedom. A particle free in physical space has three degrees of freedom corresponding to three possible perpendicular displacements. A system composed of two free particles has six degrees of freedom, and one composed of N free particles has 3N degrees. If a system of two particles is subject to a requirement that the particles remain a constant distance apart, the number of degrees of freedom becomes five. Any requirement which diminishes by one the degrees of freedom of a system is called a holonomic constraint. See Constraint

degree of freedom

[di′grē əv ′frē·dəm]
(mechanics)
Any one of the number of ways in which the space configuration of a mechanical system may change.
Of a gyro, the number of orthogonal axes about which the spin axis is free to rotate, the spin axis freedom not being counted; this is not a universal convention; for example, the free gyro is frequently referred to as a three-degree-of-freedom gyro, the spin axis being counted.
(physical chemistry)
Any one of the variables, including pressure, temperature, composition, and specific volume, which must be specified to define the state of a system.
(statistics)
A number one less than the number of frequencies being tested with a chi-square test.
References in periodicals archive ?
Yu (1997) noted that "degree of freedom is an intimate stranger to statistics students" (p.
Since the effective degree of freedom is 6, from t-distribution table at 95% CL the coverage factor K = 2.45
Each hand position was obtained by successively multiplying the eight 4 x 4 transformation matrices for four parameters of the D-H notation in each degree of freedom. A curve connecting the hand positions thus obtained consists of a cross-section of unconstrained arm reach volume with respect to the virtual surface (hip abduction of 0[degrees]).
His "degree of freedom" and "considerable ease" are comparable to his earlier "resurrection" from "the tomb of slavery to the heaven of freedom."
Following are chapters organized under two themes: single degree of freedom systems, and multi-degrees of freedom systems.
The Analysis of the Six Degree of Freedom Work Station for Mechanised Assembly, 5th World Congress on Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, pp.
In the first paper Bohr briefly describes the theory's general principles and applies it to periodic systems of one degree of freedom and to some non-periodic systems.
Most of the Board members decided to join MERLOT at the request of an administrator, but significantly fewer continue their participation due to an administrator's request (Chi square equaled 12.88 with one degree of freedom, therefore the p value was less than 0.001).
The degree of freedom for all systematic errors is infinity, as their uncertainty or accuracy is provided without confidence level.
A common solution to this problem is to use two positioners for each degree of freedom: one to provide the travel and the other to provide the precision.
Nonetheless, Perrot concludes that nineteenth-century youth enjoyed a new degree of freedom, perhaps indicated by the average marriage age in France dropping from 28.7 for males and 26.1 for females in 1821 to 25.2 and 24.1, respectively, in 1901.
Cardinal Neves of San Salvador, Brazil, underscored that the "highest degree of freedom possible in this world" is through union with Christ in Holy Communion.