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Removal of hydrogen from a compound.


A reaction in which hydrogen is detached from a molecule. The reaction is strongly endothermic, and therefore heat must be supplied to maintain the reaction temperature. When the detached hydrogen is immediately oxidized, two benefits accrue: (1) the conversion of reactants to products is increased because the equilibrium concentration is shifted toward the products (law of mass action); and (2) the added exothermic oxidation reaction supplies the needed heat of reaction. This process is called oxidative dehydrogenation. On the other hand, excess hydrogen is sometimes added to a dehydrogenation reaction in order to diminish the complete breakup of the molecule into many fragments.

The primary types of dehydrogenation reactions are vapor-phase conversion of primary alcohols to aldehydes, vapor-phase conversion of secondary alcohols to ketones, dehydrogenation of a side chain, and catalytic reforming of naphthas and naphthenes in the presence of a platinum catalyst. All four of these types of dehydrogenation reactions are of major industrial importance. They account for the production of billions of pounds of organic compounds that enter into the manufacture of lubricants, explosives, plastics, plasticizers, and elastomers.

References in periodicals archive ?
2003) fatty acids to dehydrogenate at the sixth carbon atom to form a double bond.
This study shows that soil dehydrogenate activity is a useful single criterion for measuring the status of land degradation and the rehabilitation in the field.
Conversely, he cites genetic diseases frequently found among Sephardic Jewish, Arab and other Mediterranean people--such as Mediterranean fever, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenate deficiency and Type III glycogen-storage disease as being rare among the Ashkenazi.