Reaction

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reaction

1. opposition to change, esp political change, or a desire to return to a former condition or system
2. a response indicating a person's feelings or emotional attitude
3. Med
a. any effect produced by the action of a drug, esp an adverse effect
b. any effect produced by a substance (allergen) to which a person is allergic the simultaneous equal and opposite force that acts on a body whenever it exerts a force on another body

Reaction

 

in the political sense, resistance to social progress; a political regime established to maintain and strengthen an outmoded social order. Reaction usually manifests itself in the struggle against the revolutionary movement, in the suppression of democratic rights and liberties, in the persecution of progressive political, public, and cultural figures, in mass terror and violence, in racial and national discrimination, and in an aggressive foreign policy. Reaction in its extreme form is fascism.

A reactionary is an adherent of political reaction, a retrograde person, an enemy of social, cultural, and scientific progress.


Reaction

 

in psychology, a behavioral act that takes place in response to a certain stimulus; a voluntary movement that takes place in response to a signal and is influenced by the subject’s idea of the task to be performed. It became necessary to investigate voluntary reaction after it was discovered that astronomers attempting to note the moment a star passed through a meridian were giving different figures. F. Bessel, who discovered this phenomenon, conducted an experiment in 1823 to measure reaction times of human beings to stimuli. The measurement of speed, intensity, and course of reactions created psychometrics as a branch of psychology with a special method of investigation—the method of reaction. Pioneers in this field included F. Donders of Denmark and W. Wundt, L. Lange, and N. N. Lange. Reaction was also studied by the Soviet psychologist K. N. Kornilov, the founder of reactology.

There are two basic types of reactions: simple and complex. In a simple reaction, a person quickly responds with a movement (motor and sensory reaction) to a single prearranged signal. In a complex reaction, when various signals are randomly given, a person responds to only one of them (discrimination reaction) or to all of them, but with various movements (choice reaction). The study of reaction has made it possible to formulate a number of principles of applied psychology, such as Hick’s law, which states that reaction time increases with an increase in the number of stimuli presented for discrimination.

REFERENCES

Wundt, W. Osnovy fiziologicheskoi psikhologii, fascs. 1–16. St. Petersburg, 1908–14.
Inzhenernaia psikhologiia za rubezhom. Moscow, 1967. Pages 408–24. (Collection of articles translated from English.)
See also references under .

V. I. MAKSIMENKO

reaction

[rē′ak·shən]
(control systems)
(mechanics)
The equal and opposite force which results when a force is exerted on a body, according to Newton's third law of motion.
(nuclear physics)
References in periodicals archive ?
"Potential physical origins of Sgr A*'s unprecedented brightness may be from changes in the accretion-flow as a result of the star S0-2's closest passage to the black hole in 2018 or from a delayed reaction to the approach of the dusty object G2 in 2014," the researchers (https://arxiv.org/abs/1908.01777) wrote in their study, which will be published by the Astrophysical Journal Letters. 
With regard to the latter, examples include benzoic acid, sorbic acid, cinnamaldehyde, and balsam of Peru (among others); these induce non-immunological contact urticaria in many individuals and a delayed reaction in some patients (7, 8).
Ancajas, who hails from Panabo, Davao del Norte, but now resides in Kawit, Cavite, hinted of things to come when he brought Conlan to his knees on a delayed reaction after a body shot two minutes into the fight.
"Motorists operating a vehicle in the hours of darkness experience a decrease in visual acuity and perception, which can relate to having a delayed reaction time," stated Col.
Ospreys said following Biggar's remarks that he would continue to be monitored "in case of any delayed reaction" and would need to "satisfy stringent criteria" before being allowed to take to the field again.
There was no delayed reaction for me, despite having sensitive skin, and I noticed an immediate brightness and tightening of pores.
The dismissal followed a delayed reaction from referee Daniel Siebert, who had not realised the Liverpool youngster - on as a first-half substitute - had already been booked in the 56th minute.
As I argued before in this column in a piece titled "The aftershocks of 2007," this wave of reaction is a delayed reaction to the crisis of capitalism in the wake of the global financial crisis in 2007-2008.
A delayed reaction involves the activation of T-cells in the lymphatic system and is mediated by antibodies as well.
Wearing these special types of glasses simulates the common 'walk-the-line' activity which causes loss of balance and delayed reaction times.
Well, my Twitter feed exploded yesterday, and it wasn't a delayed reaction to Hillary Clinton's announcement thatsurprise, surprise!she would be seeking the Democratic nomination for the presidency of the United States, or that Marco Rubio (who?
In aspirin/non-steroid antienflammatory drug (NSAD) hypersensitivity, immediate reaction occurs in the first 24 hours and delayed reaction occurs after 24 hours (9).