insomnia

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Related to Delayed sleep phase: Delayed sleep phase disorder

insomnia,

abnormal wakefulness or inability to sleepsleep,
resting state in which an individual becomes relatively quiescent and relatively unaware of the environment. During sleep, which is in part a period of rest and relaxation, most physiological functions such as body temperature, blood pressure, and rate of breathing and
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. The condition may result from illness or physical discomfort, or it may be caused by stimulants such as coffee or drugs. However, frequently some psychological factor, such as worry or tension, is the cause. Mild insomnia may often be relieved by a soothing activity like reading or listening to soft music. Chronic or severe insomnia requires treatment of the underlying physical or psychological disorder. In a few, very rare cases, individuals in certain families are subject to an incurable inherited insomia caused by prions that form plaques in the thalamusthalamus
, mass of nerve cells centrally located in the brain just below the cerebrum and resembling a large egg in size and shape. The thalamus is a routing station for all incoming sensory impulses except those of smell, transmitting them to higher (cerebral) nerve centers.
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; the disease appears suddenly in adulthood and ultimately is fatal.

Many patients respond to the assurance that their sleeplessness is a result of normal anxieties or a treatable physical disorder. Opportunities to ventilate anxieties often ease distress and helps resume normal sleeping patterns. Elderly persons are encourage to exercise more during the day; instructed relaxation, administration of tryptophan, and intake of warm milk helps some patients sleep. Sedatives and hypnotics drugs may be employed if the sleeplessness is impairing the subject's sense of well being. Those who wake because of pain receive an analgesic at bedtime; for those who experience insomnia accompanied with depression, an antidepressant often suffices.

Insomnia

 

(also agrypnia), disturbed sleep. Insomnia manifests itself as a shortening of the period of nocturnal sleep, delay in onset of sleep, early awakening, and repeated interruption of sleep during the night. Sleep is also impaired qualitatively; it becomes more superficial, the length of deep sleep is diminished, and the balance between dream-sleep and dreamless sleep is upset. Insomnia occurs in cases of neurosis, certain cardiovascular and psychological illnesses, neuro infections, and injury to those parts of the brain that regulate the correct alternation of sleep and wakefulness. In healthy people, it may occur after great physical or mental stress, fatigue, strong emotional experiences, and similar instances. The total absence of nocturnal or daytime sleep for long durations almost never occurs.

Treatment involves adherence to the correct regimen of work and rest, the elimination of irritating factors, bathing, and exercise. The patient may be prescribed tranquilizers and, in cases of persistent insomnia, soporifics. In cases of insomnia caused by illness, treatment consists in eliminating the original illness responsible for the insomnia.

REFERENCES

Pervov, L. G. Son i ego narushenie, Moscow, 1965.
Fedotov, D. D. Son i ego rasstroistvo. Moscow, 1966.

V. S. ROTENBERG

insomnia

[in′säm·nē·ə]
(medicine)
Sleeplessness; disturbed sleep; prolonged inability to sleep.

insomnia

The inability to sleep. If you suffer from it, the solution is to look up all the terms under "standards" in this encyclopedia. Dozing should occur shortly. If that does not work... well, at least you will become the computer guru on your block!
References in periodicals archive ?
Patterns of sleep debt can lead to delayed sleep phase disorder syndrome (DSPS), in which adolescents have difficulty regulating their awakening in the morning (Wolfson & Carskadon, 1998).
(1981) defined Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) as follows: 1) long sleep latency on weekdays (usually fall sleep between 2 a.m.
Melatonin supplements have been shown to aid in regulating sleep for people who have delayed sleep phase syndrome, jet lag, and insomnia, but not everyone who takes melatonin experiences positive results.
Delayed sleep phase in young people with unipolar or bipolar affective disorders.
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: part II, advanced sleep phase disorder, delayed sleep phase disorder, free-running disorder, and irregular sleep-wake rhythm.
Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPD) involves a delay in sleep for 2 h or longer after the routine time for going to bed, leading to difficulty in waking up at the desired time (26).
Generally there are different types of Circadian rhythm sleep disorders (i.e) Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSP), Advanced Sleep Phase disorder (ASP), Jet lag disorder, Shift work disorder, Irregular sleep/wake rhythm and free running type.
Smits, "The use of exogenous melatonin in delayed sleep phase disorder: a meta-analysis," Sleep, vol.
Onat et al., "Mutation of the human circadian clock gene CRY1 in familial delayed sleep phase disorder," Cell, vol.
"Changes in the bedtime and wake-up schedule can increase the risk of developing a circadian rhythm disorder, such as delayed sleep phase disorder.
Melatonin may be helpful if you have insomnia caused by disruptions in your sleep/wake cycle, such as problems related to shift work, jet lag, and delayed sleep phase syndrome, but you should take it about five to six hours before bedtime, Dr.