delinquency


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delinquency

[də′liŋ·kwən·sē]
(psychology)
The tendency to commit legal or moral offenses, especially by a minor.
The offense committed.

delinquency

illegal or ‘antisocial’ acts, typically performed by young males. The emphasis on young males is not necessary in a strict sense, but has been a clear feature in sociological studies of the subject, which have commonly focused on WORKING CLASS youth PEER GROUPS, gangs or SUBCULTURES, or on aspirations and opportunities for young people.

The first sociologists to study the problem systematically were associated with the CHICAGO SCHOOL in the US. Starting with the influence of Robert PARK and W. E. Burgess in the 1920s, sociologists at the University of Chicago were encouraged to undertake empirical studies of neighbourhoods, gangs, etc, treating the city as a ‘social laboratory’. Their lasting influence was in the development of area studies (the most criticized aspect of their work), and in arguments about ‘social disorganization’ and the importance of subcultures (or cultural transmission). Later US studies presented alternatives to the Chicago approach, or tried to develop themes which had been established by Chicago sociologists.

MERTON, for example, adapted DURKHEIM's notion of ANOMIE to suggest that a disparity between highly valued goals and legitimate opportunities to achieve goals could produce a number of deviant responses (see CRIMINOLOGY). Other researchers, notably A. K. Cohen (1955), developed the concept of subculture in relation to working-class male delinquency. He argued that delinquent subcultures provided an alternative source of status and respect for boys who did not take, or have access to, other 'S olutions’, like higher education or a stable adjustment to middle-class values. The values of the delinquent subculture were seen as a reaction to, and an inversion of, middle-class values. Some critics of Cohen pointed out that ‘lower-class culture’ had its own values which informed and shaped delinquent values. Those most commonly emphasized have been ‘masculinist’values of‘toughness’, autonomy and excitement. The work of Cloward and Ohlin (1960), emphasizing status and opportunities for legitimate and delinquent lifestyles, was an attempt to combine Merton's anomie theory with subculture theory Critics of US subculture theory have tended to pick out the essentially FUNCTIONALIST assumptions about values, the positivistic, over-deterministic character of the work (see DELINQUENT DRIFT), the fact that females and middle-class youth are almost completely ignored, and, finally, the lack of empirical backing for many of the assumptions and arguments of‘classical’ subculture theory

In the UK, there has been a long-standing interest in juvenile crime and policy issues. Juveniles were very much the concern of the people who framed the Probation Act of 1907. Separate provision was made for juveniles in the Criminal Justice System (from 1933) and a number of Acts in the 1970s and 80s have been specifically directed at the problems of crime and treatment of young offenders. This interest has been stimulated by successive MORAL PANICS about YOUTH CULTURES – from teddy boys in the 1950s through a variety of ‘youth subcultures’ to FOOTBALL HOOLIGANS and lager louts’ in recent years. Many sociologists have cast doubts on the argument that these phenomena are distinctively new (Pearson, 1983), and others have argued that the MASS MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION have played a significant role in defining working-class youth as a problem and in distorting and exaggerating the nature and significance of the issue (S. Cohen, 1973 and 1981). Even accepting the strength of these arguments, it is clear that juvenile crime and delinquency is a serious problem, requiring sociological research. CRIME STATISTICS in the 1980s suggest that, motoring offences apart, for both males and females, offending rates are highest amongst juveniles. This fact, together with the very high visibility of ‘youth problems’ which has been encouraged by the mass media, has stimulated a great deal of research by British sociologists. Early work questioned the value of the US gang studies for the British case (Downes, 1966). Rather different subculture models have been used, though, and are particularly associated with the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (see CULTURAL STUDIES) at Birmingham University Other studies have looked at the importance of ‘anti-school’ cultures (Willis, 1977) and at parental supervision and family life (Wilson and Herbert, 1978). Race has been a separate research area, in which much of the work has focused on the effects of deprivation, on RACISM, POLICING and political alienation (Beynon and Solomos, 1987; Institute of Race Relations, 1987). Equally important, the issue of gender has been raised in ways which do not simply accept the great discrepancy between male and female delinquency, but attempt to explain the reasons for the much lower involvement of females and for the quite different treatment which they receive in the Justice system (Carlen and Worrall, 1987). There is now a large British literature on different aspects of delinquency characterized by a diversity of research interests and strategies. See also CRIMINOLOGY, DELINQUENT SUBCULTURE.

References in periodicals archive ?
'The unemployment rate remains quite low, but the national mortgage delinquency rate in the second quarter rose from both the first quarter and one year ago.
Tax on delinquency was first because that's easier and straightforward; tax amnesty on estate is more complicated in the sense that there are many implications, it involves several transfers of property, so it's more on completeness of the reporting and proper valuation,' she said.
The June 2018 delinquency rate is 180 basis points lower than the 5.75 percent rate of a year ago.
"The regulatory scope of the new bill will encompass issues concerned with juvenile delinquency, and specifically the establishment of the necessary structures and mechanisms to prevent and deal with juvenile delinquency, as well as the management of children in the criminal justice system," Nicolaou said at an award ceremony for schools that enacted good violence prevention practices.
Section 249(B) of the NIRC imposes a 20 percent per annum deficiency interest for any unpaid deficiency tax due which is computed starting from the date prescribed for its payment until the full payment thereof.Section 249(C) of the NIRC, on the other hand, imposes a 20 percent per annum delinquency interest on the following: (1) When a taxpayer filed a return, but failed to pay the tax due thereon (2) When a taxpayer failed to pay tax due for which no return is required or (3) When the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) issued a notice and demand for the collection of unpaid tax.
April represented the second straight month that the delinquency rate crept higher following large decreases in both January and February.
Becker said that lower energy prices and job losses in energy-related industries have begun having an impact on delinquency rates in several states.
The delinquency rate for US commercial real estate loans in CMBS moved up three basis points in August to 5.45 percent.
In "America's Safest City: Delinquency and Modernity in Suburbia", noted juvenile justice scholar Simon I.
Further findings from the report showed that, at a state level, states in the South accounted for four of the top five highest delinquency rates in both the 30- and 60-day category.
The Mortgage Delinquency Report for the six months ending September 2012, states that the eastern Gold Coast had a delinquency rate of 2.44 percent, which is the highest in the region.