In our case, the anion gap was 32 mmol/liter and change (delta) in the concentration of bicarbonate ions was 10 mmol/liter with a calculated

delta ratio of 2, which interprets anion-gap acidosis with concurrent metabolic alkalosis.

(Delta Ratio)=[DELTA]AG/[DELTA]HC[O.sub.3.sup.-] or ([DELTA] [DELTA] or Delta Gap)= [DELTA]AG-[DELTA]HC[O.sub.3.sup.-]

However, the obvious advantage of using the Delta Gap (DG) equation over Delta Ratio is that it can be easily simplified to use with limited data without bicarbonate level determination.

Calculation of the delta ratio may assist with detection and characterisation of mixed acid-base disorders (see below).

The ratio between the increase in AG ([DELTA]AG) and the decrease in bicarbonate (AHC[o.sub.3]) is called the delta ratio. It is calculated as [DELTA]AG/ [DELTA]HCO; where:

Calculation of the delta ratio [(31 - 12)/ (24 - 22)] yields a value of 9.5, indicating mixed metabolic acidosis and alkalosis, the latter due to chronic diuretic therapy.

In this case, the quadratic function that approximates the relationship between the overall quality index and the

delta ratio is shown in Figure 2.

First, the credit risk delta ratio is equal to the credit risk delta (measured above) divided by the increment of loan balance (loan balance JPY95,400 million x 10 percent).

Figure 8 plots the fourth root of credit risk delta ratio on the vertical axis with the horizontal axis representing the standard normal variables (Q-Q plotting), which replace the confidence intervals in Figure 7.

Since the distribution can be approximated by a linear graph, we estimate the relationship between confidence interval and credit risk delta ratio through the linear regression function in this analysis.