Part of the importance of Les Visions d'Ermine de Reims, in which references to the devil abound, is that it demonstrates the inconvenience of a rigid opposition between the demonologies of the first and the second Christian millennia.
Histoire de la demonologie (1280-1330) (Paris: Odile Jacob, 2004).
34) Alain Boureau: "Un seul diable en plusiers personnes," preface a Houdard, Les sciences du diable, 13: "la demonologie positive n'est pas inscrite virtuellement dans le discours religieux medieval; elle surgit brusquement dans la discontinuite la plus etrange.
For a similar perspective, see Christine Pigne, "Du De Malo au Malleus Maleficarum: les consequences de la demonologie thomiste sur le corps de la sorciere," Cahiers de recherches medievales 13 (2006): 195-220.
204; Christensen, Essai sur la demonologie
iranienne (above, n.
And in fact, the symbolic outlines of the Satanist rumor-panic stories closely match those of the Puritan captivity narratives and other earlier demonologies, that children are "kidnapped and murdered" and their blood and body parts are used in cannibalistic rituals.
26) In any case, regardless of the groups involved, such demonologies seem always to develop within "situations of prolonged, unrelenting and often unexplainable social stress.
Antony, Ammonas, and Paul constructed their monastic demonologies by adapting these earlier views on the demonic role in philosophical self-cultivation to the new monastic projects of the fourth century.
66) Antony adapts previous demonologies to create a philosophical ideology, in a cosmological or mythological mode, for monastic withdrawal; as principles of differentiation, the demons render problematic individuality and difference, the symptoms of society as a collection of selves.
Their varied demonologies may reflect a gradual trend over the course of the fourth century, in which some eremetical monks increasingly emphasized the cell as the locus of solitude: an original emphasis on the desert as providing isolation from "the world" narrowed to an emphasis on the cell as providing isolation from even the monastic community.