Combining all analysis results, the optimized formulation for recycling and reusing the flowback fluid from this well/oilfield was found to be filtered flowback fluid + 0.1 wt.% Gl-47S + 0.03 wt.% citric acid (tune pH value to 5) + 0.35 wt.% high-molecular-weight guar + 0.3 wt.% crosslinking regulator (tune pH value back to 9) + 0.36 wt.% crosslinking agent + 1 wt.% temperature stabilizing agent + 1 wt.% flowback surfactant + 1 wt.% demulsifier
+ traces of other additives as in the original formulation.
Shetty, "Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions: Effects of Film Tension, Elasticity, Diffusivity, and Interfacial Activity of Demulsifier
Individual Components and their Blends," Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology 17, 33-53 (1996).
He said: "We had a leak of about a tonne of a demulsifier
. It is not a real 'nasty' but is an irritant to skin or if breathed in.
In this paper, experiments of crude oil demulsification using ultrasound, natural sedimentation, chemical demulsifier
, and the combined method of ultrasound and chemical demulsifier
, respectively, at different temperatures are investigated.
Those chemical aids, known under a general name of demulsifiers
, are surface active, adsorbing on the water droplets surfaces and altering their behaviour.
is consumed in a number of industries for demulsification of oil-water emulsion.
According to a report,"Oilfield Chemicals Market Analysis By Product (Inhibitors, Demulsifiers
, Rheology Modifiers, Friction Reducers, Biocides, Surfactants, Foamers), By Application, By Location, And Segment Forecasts, 2018 - 2025", published by Grand View Research, Inc.,