Denaturalization

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Denaturalization

 

in economics, the restoration of commodity-money relationships in an economy. Under socialism it may cover relations among sectors of the national economy, between the state and enterprises, and between the state and the population.

In the USSR an extensive denaturalization of economic relations was carried out during the transition to the New Economic Policy (NEP). The methods of “war communism,” which were based on naturalization of economic relations (including maximum centralization of national economic management, abolition of trade and its replacement by organized state distribution of the main industrial and food products according to social class affiliation, and institution of a rationing system for supply to the population), were forced and temporary. Under peacetime conditions they were incompatible with economic growth. Beginning in 1921 measures were carried out to develop commodity-money relations, employ material incentives, and introduce profit-and-loss accountability. The substitution of a tax in kind for the surplus-appropriation system made it possible to straighten out commodity relations between industry and agriculture. State enterprises were taken off budget financing and switched to the profit-and-loss accountability system, and in this way commodity-money relations among enterprises and between enterprises and the state were restored. Monetary taxes were gradually restored. In 1924 taxes in kind were completely replaced by monetary taxes. Steps were taken to put monetary circulation in order, restore credit relations, and ensure that state budgets were carried out without deficit.

In the 1950’s certain measures aimed at partial denaturalization were taken. For example, in connection with the reorganization of the machine and tractor stations in 1958, deliveries in kind were abolished; the transition was made to a monetary form of payment for labor at kolkhozes.

T. V. GUIDA

References in periodicals archive ?
But even as Johnston establishes the culturally privileged character of the Victorian lady photographer, she pushes back against that characterization by uniting the lady with the Victorian business man, denaturalizing photography as she denaturalizes the photographer.
the limits of representation and denaturalizes the frames through which
Sammy's preoccupations with the inadequacies of his own Jewish body, as it is queered and disabled, denaturalize any link between Jewishness and American-ness and work instead to establish the multiple bodily differences that might have constituted Jewishness in the war-time and post-war 1940s.
This is merely the last shift in a riff that has seen her move through several gender performances mimicking heterogender in a mocking way that denaturalizes it--again, made possible in part by Tomlin's position in popular culture.
Self-reflexivity apparently gestures toward the author, but such self-conscious gestures are often used in service of an antinarrative that denaturalizes the processes of representation, calling attention to the textuality that constructs subjectivity and problematizes the author's authority.
Science fiction can offer us a powerful way to reflect on our present political difficulties, to denaturalize what seems obvious and normal, to see our problems in new ways, and--perhaps--push our discussions in new directions.
After coming upon some wartime documents showing that defendant had served in the SS, the government filed a four-count complaint in a Wisconsin federal court which asked the court to denaturalize defendant.
Black Boy then, operates as a political intervention to make visible the invisible, and consequently denaturalize the social and point up its historicity.
What is at stake now is not to destroy the subject's mythical status but to use him/her as a case study in order to revise dogmatic principles and unexamined values, and to denaturalize long-standing beliefs.
Gramsci was interested in the construction of a theory of culture that would illuminate the politics of the very terrain of sense-making, one that would consistently denaturalize common sense, allowing the working class to construct new cultural spaces beyond the reach of bourgeois hegemony.
He challenged the audience to denaturalize and deconstruct the commercial world in which we live in order to comprehend both its function and' impact on our daily lives.
Maria's cross-dressing reflects Butler's position on the nature of gender performance; her bravery and superiority over men denaturalize gender accepted roles and become a threat to the established heterosexual order.