denaturation


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denaturation,

term used to describe the loss of native, higher-order structure of proteinprotein,
any of the group of highly complex organic compounds found in all living cells and comprising the most abundant class of all biological molecules. Protein comprises approximately 50% of cellular dry weight.
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 molecules in solution. Most globular proteins exhibit complicated three-dimensional folding described as secondary, tertiary, and quarternary structures. These conformations of the protein molecule are rather fragile, and any factor that alters the precise geometry is said to cause denaturation. Extensive unfolding sometimes causes precipitation of the protein from solution. Denaturation is defined as a major change from the original native state without alteration of the molecule's primary structure, i.e., without cleavage of any of the primary chemical bonds that link one amino acid to another. Treatment of proteins with strong acids or bases, high concentrations of inorganic salts or organic solvents (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), heat, or irradiation all produce denaturation to a variable degree. Loss of three-dimmensional structure usually produces a loss of biological activity. Thus, the denatured enzymeenzyme,
biological catalyst. The term enzyme comes from zymosis, the Greek word for fermentation, a process accomplished by yeast cells and long known to the brewing industry, which occupied the attention of many 19th-century chemists.
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 is often without catalytic function. Renaturation is accomplished with varying success, and occasionally with a return of biological function, by exposing the denatured protein to a solution that approximates normal physiological conditions. Denaturation may be studied in the laboratory in any number of ways that monitor the physical properties of protein. Thus measurements of changing viscosity, density, light-scattering ability, and movement in an electrical field all record slight changes in molecular architecture. Denaturing is also used to describe the unrelated process of adding a poisonous substance to ethanolethanol
or ethyl alcohol,
CH3CH2OH, a colorless liquid with characteristic odor and taste; commonly called grain alcohol or simply alcohol. Properties

Ethanol is a monohydric primary alcohol. It melts at −117.
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 to make it unsuitable for human consumption.
References in periodicals archive ?
The results demonstrated that the enthalpy of denaturation (H*) for kidney of controlled (Fig.
Therefore, the objectives of this study were to: i) evaluate the thermal gelation properties and level of thermal protein denaturation of actomyosin extracted from normal and PSE-like chicken breast meat, and ii) investigate changes in the molecular forces during thermal-induced gelling formation to further improve the understanding of the variations of functional properties between normal and PSE-like chicken breast meat.
Food allergens are generally resistant to extremes of heat by resisting denaturation and degradation which allows the allergen to survive the digestive system long enough to interact with the immune system to either sensitize the individual or to trigger a reaction.
Preliminary laboratory studies in our laboratory demonstrated subsurface thermal denaturation of a variety of different soft tissues using a deeply penetrating near-IR laser wavelength ([] = 1064 or 1075 nm) in combination with applied surface cooling, preserving 1-2 mm of the tissue surface.
where [E.sub.a] is the activation energy of the denaturation process, R is the gas constant, and T* is the temperature at which k is equal to 1 [min.sup.-1].
Among all synthesized compounds, compound 2 was found to be promising and about equal to the used standard aspirin in the inhibition of bovine serum albumin denaturation.
Texture changes during frozen storage have also been directly linked to protein denaturation within fish [58].
Here we introduce a modified approach by which NaME-PrO is applied in a homogeneous closed-tube format using partial denaturation at 65[degrees]C and without a denaturation step at 98[degrees]C (No Denaturation NaMEPrO [ND-NaME-PrO]).
Protein denaturation must be avoided during surimi processing.
To obtain reproducible bands, amplification was carried out in triplicates with optimized conditions and reagents (reaction concentrations and reagents are similar as above) with cycling condition: initial denaturation at 94degC for 5 min.
Pathology (d) showed cavernous hemangioma with some myocardial tissue denaturation, partial cardiac collagen degeneration, hypertrophy, and enlargement of the nucleus and immunostaining showed positive Ki-67 and negative SMA.
The distinguish of negative cooperativity easily and its correlation to the protein denaturation that is hardly predicted by the previously introduced models, is the important aspect of the extended solvation model (equation 1).