For example, at room temperature, the trap density ([N.sub.t]) is about 9.2 x [10.sup.17] [cm.sup.-3], the trap energy level ([E.sub.t]) is about 0.21 eV, the trap capture cross-section ([sigma]) is about 1.2 x [10.sup.-21] [cm.sup.2], the effective

density of states in the conduction band ([N.sub.C]) is about 5.5 x [10.sup.18] [cm.sup.-3], the maximum of dielectric relaxation time ([[tau].sub.d,max]) is about 8.8 x [10.sup.-5] s, and the electron mobility ([mu]) is about 8.2 x [10.sup.-7] [cm.sup.2]/V-s.

Figures 7 and 8 show the electronic

density of states (DOS) for the considered gas molecule adsorped on the B-CNT and Si-CNT systems.

When the sensor is exposed to the gas, the

density of states can be divided into two parts; one is the

density of states without gas [DOS.sub.WOG](F) and the second parameter is the

density of states with gas proportional to [alpha]F, which depends on different values of N[O.sub.2] gas concentration.

where [N.sub.v] and [N.sub.c] are the effective

density of states in the valence and conduction band, respectively, [E.sub.f] is the Fermi level, [E.sub.v] and [E.sub.c] are the valence band and the conduction band mobility edges, respectively.

The sketch in Figure 3 illustrates the electronic

density of states for a normal metal (panel a), a superconductor at finite temperatures (panel b) and the superconductor at T = 0 (panel c).

Moreover, from the projected

density of states, it was found that the carbon atoms around the graphene-fullerene connection contributed to the gap mainly.

One way to determine device performance is measuring I-V (current-voltage) and C-V (capacitance-voltage) characteristics which would be helpful to understand fundamental electronic properties of the devices such as

density of states (DOS), band energy, mobility, and conductance and that is why the capacitance is an important parameter [42].

The spin-polarized calculations show that the ZnONSs have no magnetism; this can also be seen from the total

density of states (DOS) shown in Figure 2 and is consistent with previous experimental results [23, 24].

Nanostructure can enhance the electronic

density of states near Fermi level, and the nanostructured thermoelectric materials have a large number of boundaries that will strongly scatter the phonons and carries [13].

Both Knight shift K and spin-lattice relaxation time [T.sub.1] relaxation are affected by the

density of states (DOS) at the Fermi surface n([E.sub.F]) shift and relaxation are dominated by the magnetic interaction with the conduction electrons of the metal [33].

Quantum effects which include delta function-like

density of states and size-dependent electronic levels allow several physical properties to be tuned.

We also demonstrate the effects of the channel area restructuring on the maximum electric field as well as

density of states (DOS) in the conductance of CNT.