Stomatitis

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Related to denture stomatitis: inflammatory papillary hyperplasia

stomatitis

[‚stō·mə′tīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the soft tissues in the mouth.

Stomatitis

 

inflammation of the oral mucosa accompanied by degenerative changes in the oral cavity. In humans, stomatitis may be caused by mechanical, thermal, chemical, or physical injury, hypovitaminosis, diabetes mellitus, diseases of the cardiovascular, nervous, hematopoietic, and digestive systems, acute infections (for example, measles, scarlet fever, and diphtheria), chronic infections (for example, tuberculosis), poisoning, and parasitic fungi (for example, thrush).

The factors that cause traumatic stomatitis include deposits of dental calculus, decayed carious teeth, poorly made prostheses and fillings, foreign objects, burns produced by hot food, and the action of alkalies and acids. A catarrhal process develops after short exposure to an injurious factor, with the mucous membrane becoming hyperemic and edematous and bleeding easily. Prolonged exposure results in the formation of ulcers, around which inflammatory phenomena develop.

Stomatitis caused by systemic diseases is characterized by the appearance of aphthae on the oral mucosa; it may be acute or chronic. Acute stomatitis aphthosa usually occurs in children suffering from gastrointestinal diseases, diatheses, or viral diseases. The body temperature is high, and aphthae surrounded by a bright red border appear on the mucosa of the gums, lips, and palate. There is profuse salivation, and the submaxillary lymph nodes become enlarged and tender. The disease lasts seven to ten days. Chronic recurrent stomatitis aphthosa is characterized by the periodic appearance of solitary aphthae on the buccal mucosa, the lateral surface of the tongue, and the lower lip. The bottoms of the aphthae are covered with a grayish yellow coating. The lymph nodes are usually not enlarged. The disease lasts five to ten days, after which the aphthae epithelize or are transformed into ulcers.

Ulcerative stomatitis commonly accompanies acute enterocolitis, gastric ulcer, and mercury and bismuth poisoning. It may result from tonsillitis or influenza. Ulcers may appear over the entire mucosa. A disagreeable odor emanates from the mouth, and salivation is profuse. With blood diseases (leukemias), aphthae appear on the oral mucosa and tonsils; the aphthae are eventually transformed into ulcers. Radiation sickness is characterized by the same symptoms.

Preventive and therapeutic measures include good oral hygiene, the elimination of the causes of the disease, rinsing of the mouth with a salt solution or boric acid (depending on the pH of the oral environment), physical therapy, and the application of sea-buckthorn oil.

REFERENCE

Rybakov, A. I. Stomatity. Moscow, 1964.
A. I. RYBAKOV
In animals. Stomatitis results from mechanical, thermal, or chemical factors (primary stomatitis) or accompanies such infectious diseases as foot-and-mouth disease and stachybotryotoxico-sis (secondary stomatitis). A diseased animal refuses to eat. The disease is manifested by frothy salivation, mucosal lesions, and a putrid mouth odor.
Treatment methods include irrigating the oral mucosa with disinfectants and astringents. Specific treatment is indicated in cases of secondary stomatitis.
References in periodicals archive ?
In one study, ten patients suffering from recurrent denture stomatitis were selected and Candida was eliminated from the mouth of five patients.
The prevalence of denture stomatitis is about 65% among complete denture - wearers.
In conclusion, soft liners can be incorporated with antifungal agents and can be used as one of the management approaches towards denture stomatitis.
Kulak and Arikan, also found pronounced significance between poor denture cleanliness and 22 denture stomatitis .
The etiological factors in denture stomatitis are denture trauma and poor oral hygiene with a superimposed C.
albicans is the major etiologic agent in human candidiasis (Lopez-Martinez 2010) and is thought to pay an important role in denture stomatitis (Budtz-Jorgensen and Bertram 1970; Samaranayake et al.
In over 80% of patients with angular cheilitis there is a co-existent denture stomatitis (Oksoala, 1990).
12 To minimize the prevalence of denture stomatitis, the dentist must instruct the patient in removing complete dentures 6 to 8 hours per day.
Gram positive cocci and Gram negative bacilli, as the causative agent of denture stomatitis were reported by Van Reenan.
This method of incorporating NSAID into the polymer of acrylic resin can also be extended to incorporation of antifungal agents into the polymer during the fabrication of complete denture that aid in reducing denture stomatitis.