Stomatitis

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Related to denture stomatitis: inflammatory papillary hyperplasia

stomatitis

[‚stō·mə′tīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the soft tissues in the mouth.

Stomatitis

 

inflammation of the oral mucosa accompanied by degenerative changes in the oral cavity. In humans, stomatitis may be caused by mechanical, thermal, chemical, or physical injury, hypovitaminosis, diabetes mellitus, diseases of the cardiovascular, nervous, hematopoietic, and digestive systems, acute infections (for example, measles, scarlet fever, and diphtheria), chronic infections (for example, tuberculosis), poisoning, and parasitic fungi (for example, thrush).

The factors that cause traumatic stomatitis include deposits of dental calculus, decayed carious teeth, poorly made prostheses and fillings, foreign objects, burns produced by hot food, and the action of alkalies and acids. A catarrhal process develops after short exposure to an injurious factor, with the mucous membrane becoming hyperemic and edematous and bleeding easily. Prolonged exposure results in the formation of ulcers, around which inflammatory phenomena develop.

Stomatitis caused by systemic diseases is characterized by the appearance of aphthae on the oral mucosa; it may be acute or chronic. Acute stomatitis aphthosa usually occurs in children suffering from gastrointestinal diseases, diatheses, or viral diseases. The body temperature is high, and aphthae surrounded by a bright red border appear on the mucosa of the gums, lips, and palate. There is profuse salivation, and the submaxillary lymph nodes become enlarged and tender. The disease lasts seven to ten days. Chronic recurrent stomatitis aphthosa is characterized by the periodic appearance of solitary aphthae on the buccal mucosa, the lateral surface of the tongue, and the lower lip. The bottoms of the aphthae are covered with a grayish yellow coating. The lymph nodes are usually not enlarged. The disease lasts five to ten days, after which the aphthae epithelize or are transformed into ulcers.

Ulcerative stomatitis commonly accompanies acute enterocolitis, gastric ulcer, and mercury and bismuth poisoning. It may result from tonsillitis or influenza. Ulcers may appear over the entire mucosa. A disagreeable odor emanates from the mouth, and salivation is profuse. With blood diseases (leukemias), aphthae appear on the oral mucosa and tonsils; the aphthae are eventually transformed into ulcers. Radiation sickness is characterized by the same symptoms.

Preventive and therapeutic measures include good oral hygiene, the elimination of the causes of the disease, rinsing of the mouth with a salt solution or boric acid (depending on the pH of the oral environment), physical therapy, and the application of sea-buckthorn oil.

REFERENCE

Rybakov, A. I. Stomatity. Moscow, 1964.
A. I. RYBAKOV
In animals. Stomatitis results from mechanical, thermal, or chemical factors (primary stomatitis) or accompanies such infectious diseases as foot-and-mouth disease and stachybotryotoxico-sis (secondary stomatitis). A diseased animal refuses to eat. The disease is manifested by frothy salivation, mucosal lesions, and a putrid mouth odor.
Treatment methods include irrigating the oral mucosa with disinfectants and astringents. Specific treatment is indicated in cases of secondary stomatitis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Mixed candida albicans and candida glabrata populations associated with the pathogenesis of denture stomatitis. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2008; 23: 377-83.
Our goal was to extend the possibilities for the management and therapy of denture stomatitis beyond conventional methods.
(30.) Gendreau L, Lowey ZG (2011) Epidemiology and etiology of denture stomatitis. J Prosthodont 20: 251-260.
This may prevent the microbial attachment to certain extent and thus resist the development of biofilms leading to denture stomatitis.
The relationship between exposure and resistance may also explain the results of this study; the frequent use of nystatin or other drugs prescribed as antifungals for denture stomatitis associated with Candida spp.
In one study, ten patients suffering from recurrent denture stomatitis were selected and Candida was eliminated from the mouth of five patients.14 In the second study, five volunteers offered saliva collection and the results were compared in those who wore the drug delivery devices and those who did not and the drug release was evaluated.7
The pathological reaction of the denture - bearing mucosa caused by trauma from ill - fitting dentures is called denture stomatitis. If the yeast Candida is involved, the term denture stomatitis is used with the prefix Candida - associated.1-3
In Vivo Efficacy of Alkaline Peroxide Tablets and Mouthwashes on Candida Albicans in Patients with Denture Stomatitis, J Appl Oral Sci 2010; 18: 291-6.
Several studies have attempted to incorporate antifungal agents into tissue conditioners for treatment of denture stomatitis. A method of treatment by combining tissue conditioner and antifungal agents was suggested by Douglas and Walker in 1973.
Our results are in agreement to those of Kulak, who found insignificant association between the frequency of denture brushing and 21 denture stomatitis .
Denture stomatitis --a review of the aetiology, diagnosis and management.
Denture stomatitis affecting denture wearers is an inflammation of palatal mucosa characterised by creamy white pseudomembranes.