dependency theory


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dependency theory

a theory of economic, social and political change which attempts to explain the continuing poverty, deprived social conditions and political instability of many poor countries in terms of their dominance by rich and powerful countries.

Dependency theory was first developed by economists in Latin America in the 1950s in opposition to the prevailing orthodoxy that THIRD WORLD countries could achieve MODERNIZATION and INDUSTRIALIZATION by following the examples of the already industrialized world. As it was developed by FRANK (1967b), the theory argues that Third World countries’ problems were created by the colonial and trade dominance of Europe and the US. Their economies were shaped, firstly, by the needs of the advanced countries for agricultural and mineral goods, and, secondly, by the requirement to provide markets for the manufactured goods from the North. Any indigenous manufacturing in the Third World was suppressed by a combination of COMPETITION and political COERCION. Economic surpluses flowed out of the Third World through the repatriation of any profits, and terms of UNEQUAL EXCHANGE, whereby prices of Third World exports were comparatively lower than their manufactured imports, were employed. Thus, the Third World contributed to the economic growth and industrialization of Europe and the US, and that process created structures in the Third World which made industrialization there difficult or impossible. The Third World cannot repeat the experiences of the US or Europe because its starting point is different. In Frank's terms, it is underdeveloped, not undeveloped.

The theory was very influential in sociology in the 1970s. Whilst often termed neo-Marxist, it came under increasing criticism from Marxist writers. In particular, it has been criticized for concentrating on market rather than production relations. In one of the most rigorous critiques, Taylor (1979) has argued that the central concept of economic surplus is extremely weak. More general criticisms include its relative neglect of the contribution of internal social relations to problems which poor countries face, and the increasing diversity of their experiences. In the 1980s, many countries labelled Third World experienced significant processes of industrialization and rapid economic growth which most dependency analyses would seem to preclude. The main analysis within dependency theory which is most likely to endure is the work of Cardoso and Faletto (1979). This identifies different forms of dependency over time and space, and incorporates a detailed analysis of the class structure of Latin America. However, as Mouzelis (1988) argues, this too suffers from an over-general analysis which seems no longer adequate to embrace the diversity of experiences in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Roxborough (1984) adds that such overschematized analyses of history can now be improved as social scientific and historical studies become more adequate.

References in periodicals archive ?
In short, this study tested Ball-Rokeach and DeFleur's (1979) media dependency theory, a westrooted theory, in the context of the Internet rise among the Chinese college students.
The book is a key text in popularising what became known as the dependency theory. Contrary to the traditional narrative of development that all countries progress through a series of stages on their road to modernity, the book's underlying argument is 'Underdevelopment isn't a stage of development, but its consequence'.
Conrad also charts the rise of area studies, critiques of Western dominance and Eurocentrism, dependency theory, and subaltern studies as early forays in global history.
Upon repeated betrayal by its former allies, Pak Army had a re-evaluated its former submissive strategy of cold war, which was essentially based on dependency theory. The re-evaluation process led Pakistan Army for self-dependence and innovation in its defence and security matters.
A champion of dependency theory and world systems analysis, Amin made a formidable contribution to international political economy through an astute analysis of contradictions, inequalities and social conflicts in the world.
If in the traditional "see, judge, and act" methodological structure the "see" moment focuses on a description of the environment in which the person is living, in the liberationist method the "see" moment is based on a socio-analytical approach to reality in structural terms by using the tools of Dependency theory and those of a Marxist analysis of reality.
I would see him wince whenever I referred to the Latin American "formula for economic disaster," the inward-looking, import-substitution, and ultra-nationalist policy of industrialization based on the dependency theory of Raoul Prebisch, a Latin American economist.
Sub-Imperialism Revisited: Dependency Theory in the Thought of Ruy Mauro Marini
Lee, the theory of neoclassical economics, the theory of the new economics of migration, the theory of the dual and segmented labour market, the dependency theory, the migration network theory, the systemic theory.
This resulted in notions associated with dependency theory and the national independence movements of the Global South, as well as the question of national sovereignty, dominating the Marxist debates inside Canada.
Dependency theory appealed to decolonized countries feeling themselves at a historical disadvantage.
(15) From the above, it becomes clear that the dependency theory to which reference will be made later is a very popular explanation for Africa's underdevelopment.

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