Amongst the compounds examined, the depside
atranorin had shown substantial activity as an antiglycation agent along with divaricatic acid and usnic acid.
Except for usnic acid, no cytotoxic effects were observed for the two depsides
(atranorin and perlatolic acid) and the alkyl depsidone (physodic acid).
polyketides (such as depsides
and depsidones) have been found to exhibit manifold biological activities with potential application in human pharmacology [9,10].
Since lichens produce special molecular scaffolds with known bioactivities, such as depsides
, depsidones and some special polysaccharides, it can be hypothesized that similar bioactive compounds may cluster in certain group of lichens.
Lu, and et al., "Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, metabolism, and excretion of depside
salts from Salvia miltiorrhiza in rats," Drug Metabolism and Disposition the Biological Fate of Chemicals, vol.
Signals at 10.33, 3.93, 6.51, and 6.76 ppm in the [sup.1]H spectrum are indicative of aldehyde carbonyl and methyl ester groups, as well as hydrogens at C-5 and C-5', respectively, in the structure of the depside
 identified free phenolic acids (syringic, p-coumaric, vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, and ferulic acids) and depside
(chlorogenic acid) in the roots of E.
Further to gyrophoric acid, the NMR spectra showed signals indicative of alditols and waxes, as well as low-intensity signals attributed to the depside
Pharmacological actions and therapeutic applications of Salvia miltiorrhiza depside
salt and its active components.
Of natural substances 1-9, usnic acid (4) and the depside
atranorin (1) proved the most active, followed by the depsidones protocetraric (2), salazinic (6), hypostictic (7), and norstictic (8) acids, three of which 6, 7 and 8 have a lactol ring.
The diffractaic acid (3) (LogP 5.48 [+ or -] 0.42) was the most active compound and it is more lipophilic than the depsidones and less lipophilic than the depside
Coumaroyl Iridoids and a Depside
from cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon).