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see calculuscalculus,
branch of mathematics that studies continuously changing quantities. The calculus is characterized by the use of infinite processes, involving passage to a limit—the notion of tending toward, or approaching, an ultimate value.
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the fundamental concept of the differential calculus. It characterizes the rate of change of a function. The derivative is a function defined, for every x, as the limit of the ratio

if the limit exists. A function whose derivative exists is said to be differentiable.

Every differentiable function is continuous. The opposite assertion, however, is false. There even exist continuous functions that are nowhere differentiable. The derivative of a function of a real variable may be nondifferentiable or even discontinuous. In the complex domain, on the other hand, the existence of the first derivative implies the existence of derivatives of all orders. Derivatives of functions of more than one variable (partial derivatives), the rules for obtaining derivatives, and various applications of derivatives are discussed in the article DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS.

The theory of functions of a real variable deals, in particular, with the functional properties of the derivative and with various generalizations of the concept of the derivative. For example, a derivative that exists everywhere is a function of class one in the Baire classification. A derivative, even if it is discontinuous, takes on all intermediate values between its maximum and minimum. The most important generalizations of the concept of derivative follow.

Dini derivatives. The superior limit of the ratio

as x1x, x1 > x, is called the right upper derivative of f Δd. The right lower λd and left upper Δs and lower λs derivatives are defined in an analogous manner. If Δd = λds = λs), f(x) has a right (left) derivative at the point x. The ordinary derivative exists if all four Dini derivatives are finite and equal. Dini derivatives were introduced by the Italian mathematician U. Dini in 1878. In 1915, N. N. Luzin proved that if all four Dini derivatives are finite on some set, then, apart from a null set, the function has an ordinary derivative everywhere on the set.

Approximate derivative. The approximate derivative was introduced by A. Ia. Khinchin in 1916. It is the limit of the ratio

as x1, approaches x on the points of a set for which x is a density point.


A substance that is made from another substance.
The slope of a graph y = ƒ(x) at a given point c ; more precisely, it is the limit as h approaches zero of ƒ(c + h) - ƒ(c) divided by h. Also known as differential coefficient; rate of change.


1. Chem a compound that is formed from, or can be regarded as formed from, a structurally related compound
2. Maths
a. the change of a function, f(x), with respect to an infinitesimally small change in the independent variable, x; the limit of [f(a + Δx)--f(a)]/Δx, at x = a, as the increment, Δx, tends to 0. Symbols: df(x)/dx, fʹ(x), Df(x)
b. the rate of change of one quantity with respect to another
3. Psychoanal an activity that represents the expression of hidden impulses and desires by channelling them into socially acceptable forms
References in periodicals archive ?
All the same, courts should acknowledge that stockholders embark upon an alternative and potentially constructive kind of democratic engagement when they sue derivatively.
This is because in adopting a position concerning the metaphysical notion of change or constancy, a philosopher is ultimately declaring allegiance to a view of time (and, derivatively, a view of reality).
From this sketch I will identify the premise I will later challenge: that propositions conveyed sub-sententially cannot get their logical form derivatively from the sub-sentential speech act itself, because this kind of acts lack the proper syntactic structure to have logical form.
442 by adding [section](c)(4), which provides: (4) Notwithstanding subdivision (c)(3) [the section dealing with joint proposals for settlement], when a party is alleged to be solely vicariously, constructively, derivatively, or technically liable, whether by operation of law or by contract, a joint proposal made by or served on such a party need not state the apportionment or contribution as to that party.
DEPRESSINGLY uninspirational and derivatively repetitive - the first comments from the Army''s new commander.
Thus women and children often receive their refugee status derivatively, a practice that conceals the specificity of persecution based on gender.
The persons--"I am absolutely programmed against Personism per se," Rodefer assonantly announces from the podium of page thirty-one--are all a phantom menagerie, just puppets whose strings are mere syntax, so that "the girl" whom, general reader, "you're sleeping with" and "a CIA agent" are both just book ends whose whole shelf is the derivatively Bur- roughsian delight Rodefer takes in saying "lick the diseased asshole," and we are the audience on unending standby to gratify him with our squirming.
Necessity and contingency are properties of states of affairs or, derivatively, of statements that express them.
The noncompositional theories of meaning discussed at the end of Section 4 assume that, while complex structures are the primitive units of semantic representation, individual components of complex structures may be derivatively associated with particular aspects of meaning.
a claimant must be a contemporaneous shareholder to sue derivatively.
41) The fact that claims regarding objects and so forth are established derivatively does not in any way diminish their normative force--the fact that they command compliance from those to whom they are addressed, even if those addressed would prefer to act differently.

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