deskilling


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deskilling

a process of job degradation in which work is progressively fragmented, and stripped of its complexity, discretionary content and knowledge base. The most important exposition of this concept (degradation of work thesis) is found in Braverman's theory of the LABOUR PROCESS based upon MARX. Deskilling is seen as a result of capitalist control of the labour process, in which management, using the principles of SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT, separates conception from execution and increasingly takes control of the labour process away from workers, leaving them with mundane, repetitive tasks. The argument that SKILL levels fall with the development of CAPITALISM and TECHNOLOGY is based upon 19th-century craft work as the model for skilled labour. In this theory, deskilling is a major cause of PROLETARIANIZATION in the class structure, reducing both skilled manual and clerical workers to a homogeneous working class.

In sharp contradiction to theories of the labour process, the thesis of POSTINDUSTRIAL SOCIETY posits a general upgrading of skills based upon INDUSTRIALIZATION. New technology is seen as creating the need for new skills, multi-skilling (polyvalency) and higher levels of qualification and technical expertise to replace the older craft skills of the 19th-century Much of the debate about changing skill levels involves different definitions of skill and different types of evidence. For example, the evidence for skill upgrading has relied upon formal job classification and qualifications, whereas evidence for deskilling has analysed actual skills required in a job.

The deskilling argument has been criticized as deterministic and reliant upon a romanticized picture of the craft worker. Comparative research using CONTINGENCY THEORY has found evidence of both job upgrading and deskilling in different industrial sectors and societies, reflecting different managerial strategies, labour markets and other contingent factors.

At the societal level, it is difficult to assess overall changes in skill levels, since economic restructuring may displace skills in old industries and create new skills in expanding sectors. In addition, whilst certain jobs may be deskilled, workers may not, since they may either be upwardly mobile (e.g. male clerical workers), or move into new jobs requiring higher levels of skill. Nevertheless, widespread empirical evidence for deskilling has been found in both the manufacturing and service sectors with mechanization and computerization. See also SKILL, NEW TECHNOLOGY, INTELLECTUAL LABOUR, FORDISM AND POSTFORDISM, CRAFT APPRENTICESHIP.

References in periodicals archive ?
Taken from 19th-century industry, Kincheloe (2004) explains the similarity between the phenomenon of deskilling the industrialized worker and deskilling an educator.
These are also the most over-stretched with huge issues of unsustainable overtime, deskilling of jobs and funding problems.
In this study, I aim to explore the contribution of the Israeli procurement policy to deskilling in gendered occupations, particularly nursing, social work, and teaching; areas with a rich history of unionization.
This is vital in an era where deskilling is unfortunately -- though understandably -- part of the economic and technological landscape.
Essentially our dispute is about public safety and the ideologically driven agenda of this Government to let companies buy us for the lowest price, with the likelihood of deskilling a large part of our workforce."
Machine production and the resultant 'deskilling' of the workforce, argued the union's founders, had rendered craft or trade forms of organisation outmoded and ineffective in fighting the increasingly concentrated power of capital.
The Braver Man Theory 30 years ago, ie deskilling the workforce, is really like a "dead duck" now.
By deskilling operations cheaper labour can be used,
She further indicates that "deskilling" of workers is inevitable as foreign educational credentials are not acknowledged by Canadian companies and immigrants are forced to use their hands rather than their minds to make a living.
Misallocation of resources and improper management of human capital in Cyprus therefore needs drastic and innovative measures that will tackle both deskilling as well as unemployment.
Chapters that summarize and synthesize the sociology of work literature are presented on the following topics: the historical transformation of work; work and alienation; work and deskilling; work, upskilling, and polarization of skill; fordism, neo-fordism, and post-fordism in industrial and service work; non-standard work; unemployment; domestic work; and work and globalization.
All this represents a further indicator of processes of precarization and deskilling pertaining intellectual production.