destructive distillation


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Related to destructive distillation: Destructive Distillation of Wood

destructive distillation

[di′strək·tiv dis·tə′lā·shən]
(organic chemistry)
Decomposition of organic compounds by heat without the presence of air.

Destructive distillation

The primary chemical processing of materials such as wood, coal, oil shale, and some residual oils from refining of petroleum. It consists in heating material in an inert atmosphere at a temperature high enough for chemical decomposition. The principal products are (1) gases containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia, (2) oils, and (3) water solutions of organic acids, alcohols, and ammonium salts.

Crude shale oil may be obtained by destructive distillation of carboniferous shales. It may be subjected to a destructive, or coking, distillation to reduce its viscosity and increase its hydrogen content. Residual oils from petroleum refinery operations are subjected to coking distillation to reduce the carbon content. The coke is used for the manufacture of electrode carbon. The main product of the destructive distillation of wood is 40–45% charcoal used in metallurgical processes in which the low content of ash, sulfur, and phosphorus is important. See Coal chemicals

References in periodicals archive ?
Karl Haulter, chemist at the Crown Chemical Company's turpentine plant in Grayling, was credited with producing 26 different products using the destructive distillation process.
The ILS system uses "ultra-high temperature gasification" to accomplish what the companies call "destructive distillation" of the largely non-metallic ASR stream.
They exploited the forest for the logs as well as for firewood, potash, tools, maple sap, tanning bark, fencing, charcoal, railway ties, and the chemical products of destructive distillation. Such activities, destructive and wasteful as they were, are the background of the forest in which I work and in which I find so much diversity, beauty, and interest.