All barriers to the movement of capital and labor were removed, and the East German ostmark was converted into deutsche marks
at a rate of 1:1 for smaller amounts, and 2:1 for larger sums.
Following the historic accord, the US dollar depreciated by as much as 50 percent against the Japanese yen and the Deutsche mark
. Japan and the aftermath of the Plaza Accord
Firstly, the convertible mark was pegged to the Deutsche Mark
under the exchange rate 1 KM = 1 DEM.
If you take 10 million Deutsche Marks
from Frankfurt and you give it to a Spanish, Greek or Italian firm or bank --and that is prior to monetary union--and then suddenly there is a substantial devaluation of the currency of Spain, of Italy or Greece something that was happening at regular intervals prior to monetary union--then you know that the capacity of the creditors to repay the loan shrinks.
Simon abruptly said, "How much?" The man, startled to be asked straight out what amount would close the deal, responded by holding up three fingers and saying, "dreihundert Deutsche Mark
." That was 300 Deutsche Marks
, or about $200 at the time.
Then the exchange rate of the deutsche mark
would shoot up, undermining to some extent the competitiveness of the economy.
For decades, Dutch monetary policy was based on matching German interest rates and maintaining a stable exchange rate between the Dutch guilder and the Deutsche Mark
Hanke is one of the principal designers of the currency board, which after a local financial collapse in the late 1990s pegged the Bulgarian lev to the Deutsche Mark
and then to the euro.
Anne and her family had just a 10 Deutsche Mark
note when they finally made it to England.
AFTER HIS "sure bet" against the deutsche mark
temporarily wiped him out in 1920, John Maynard Keynes famously quipped, "The market can stay irrational longer than you can stay solvent." Maybe it's a result of globalization, but irrational financial markets seem to carry a bigger wallop today.
RIBs were issued in different currency options-- US dollar, pound sterling and Deutsche Mark
( the Euro came later) for a tenor of five years.
Another way to look at negative yields is the cost of the option on a more stable currency if the euro collapses, for example, the Deutsche mark
. Germany's potential post-euro currency (aka DEM v2.0) would likely be the strongest among the ex-eurozone members thanks to the fundamental strength of its economy.