Fluctuating asymmetry and developmental instability
in evolutionary biology: Past, present and future.
Thus, its display of developmental instability
in these conditions is another indication that environmental stress in Picher must be significant.
FA is commonly seen as a departure from ideal development process thus it is often used as an indicator for developmental instability
Intensive directional selection for a trait can increase developmental instability
and impose selection against genetic modifiers that reduce the development of extreme phenotypes in a range of species including chickens (Parsons, 1992; Yang and Siegel, 1998).
Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of bilateral traits is a measure of developmental instability
caused by genetic or environment stressors.
FA was used to measure: I) the developmental instability
levels in mated and unmated males and II) the developmental instability
levels in males reared for more than one year on different diets (independently of their mating status, mated or not).
The degree of asymmetry in feather replacement may be considered a reliable measure of developmental instability
of avian molt.
as a research tool; using patterns of fluctuating asymmetry to infer the developmental origins of morphological integration, pp.
According to Moller & Swaddle (1997), increase in the variability of cellular growth rates under sub-optimal conditions is a source of developmental instability
and it might induce asymmetric growth in plant organs with bilateral symmetry.
Genomic coadaptation, outbreeding depression and developmental instability
Parasitism and developmental instability
of hosts: a review.
2003), is widely used to estimate developmental instability
in populations in specific environments (Palmer 1994, Vollestad et al.