The author named it deviant careers, although his Chicago colleagues had already coined the term, understanding that "to have a deviant career was thus tantamount to being socialized into the ways of a subculture" (Barley, 1989, p.
Key words: careers; deviant careers; symbolic interactionism; tattoo; narratives.
Hughes (1937) does not assume linearity in careers and the so-called deviant careers seem to be like a zigzag (Boylstein & Maggard, 2013; Meisenhelder, 1977), going repeatedly through diverting labels (Becker, 2008).
The professional ex-: An alternative for exiting the deviant career
. The Sociological Quarterly, 32, 219-230.
Weighted towards the social constructionist approach, the 47 chapters in this reader present a variety of studies and perspectives on why individuals engage in norm-violating behavior, deviant identity, the social organization of deviance, and the phases of the deviant career
. The sixth edition add 18 pieces on cyberporn, shoplifters, bankruptcy, male cheerleaders, the ecstasy drug, Halliburton, lesbian cruising, and pyramid schemes.
The authors cover the diversity of deviance, researching deviance, anomie/strain theory, social disorganization theory, differential association and social learning theory, social control theories, labeling theory, Marxist/conflict theories, critical theories, the social control of deviance, deviant careers
and career deviance, and global perspectives on deviance and social control.
Part five is about identity, part six is about social organization, part seven looks at deviant acts, and part eight at deviant careers
. Because current ideas of "deviant" center on crime, drugs, and sex, many of the studies look at economic class, gender, race, or sexual orientation, along with work, school, home life, drugs (including tobacco and sometimes food), money, crime, and/or sexuality, and the everyday ways people connect deviant acts with places, individuals, and groups.
Adler and Adler's description of the deviant careers
of drug dealers and smugglers in Southern California is a classic from the deviance field.
Although scholars have examined the issue of leaving deviant careers
, the issue of reintegration of deviants into conventional society has received little sociological attention.
(7.) On the dynamics of deviant careers, see, of course, Becker (1963) and Goffman (1961).
and Peter Adler 1983 "Shifts and Oscillations in Deviant Careers: The Case of Upper Level Drug Dealers and Smugglers." Social Problems 31: 195-207.