Deviation

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deviation

[‚dēv·ē′ā·shən]
(engineering)
The difference between the actual value of a controlled variable and the desired value corresponding to the set point.
(evolution)
Evolutionary differentiation involving interpolation of new stages in the ancestral pattern of morphogenesis.
(optics)
The angle between the incident ray on an object or optical system and the emergent ray, following reflection, refraction, or diffraction. Also known as angle of deviation.
(petroleum engineering)
During a drilling operation, the inclination of the borehole from the vertical.
(statistics)
The difference between any given number in a set and the mean average of those numbers.

Deviation

 

in artillery, an accidental phenomenon not allowed for in the laws of dispersion, by which shells (bullets) veer away from the mean trajectory expected under the given firing conditions. Causes of deviation may be the mechanical disruption of the movement of the shell in the bore (for example, separation of the shell from the rifling grooves) or in the air (for example, a defect in the stabilizer fins or other parts), as well as a chance sharp change in weather conditions during the flight of the shell.


Deviation

 

in biology, a variety of phylembryogenesis in which a change in the development of an organ arises in the middle stages of its formation and results in a change in the structure of the organ in the adult organism, compared with the same organ in its ancestors. For example, in the middle stages of development the epidermal part of the scale buds of reptiles undergoes keratinization, not ossification (as in sharks). The term “deviation” was introduced by the German scientist F. Müller (1864).


Deviation

 

the most common measure of dispersion, that is, deviation from the mean, in mathematical statistics and theory of probability. In the statistical sense, deviation

is the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviations of the values Xi from their arithmetic mean

In the theory of probability the deviation (variance) of a random variable X is called the expected value E(X - mx)2 of the square of the deviation of X from its expected value mx =E(X). The deviation of a random variable X is denoted by D(X) or by σ2). The square root of the deviation (that is, if the deviation is σ2) is called standard deviation.

For a random variable X with continuous probability distribution, characterized by probability density p(x), deviation is calculated by the formula

where

The following theorem has great significance in the theory of probability: the deviation of the sum of independent terms is equal to the sum of their deviations. No less important is Chebyshev’s inequality, which allows us to evaluate the probability of large deviations of the random variable X from its expected value.

REFERENCE

Gnedenko, B. V. Kurs teorii veroiatnostei, 5th ed. Moscow, 1969.

deviation

deviation
deviation
i. The angular difference between a magnetic and a compass heading. It is a compass error caused by the compass magnet attempting to align with the aircraft's local magnetic field. The deviation error changes with the aircraft heading and the latitude. It is measured in degrees east (+) or west (−), depending on whether the north-seeking end of the compass needle lies to the east or west of magnetic north.
ii. The angle between the wind and the pressure gradient.
iii. In frequency modulation, the amount the carrier increases or decreases when modulated.
vi A departure from a current clearance, such as an off-course maneuver, to avoid bad weather or turbulence.
v A variation from set rules and regulations. Where specifically authorized in the regulation and requested by the pilot, ATC (air traffic control) may permit pilots to deviate from certain regulations.
vi. In flight, a sudden excursion from the normal flight path.
vii. The distance by which a weapon misses its target.
References in periodicals archive ?
Finally, a new goal programming strategy has been developed to solve bi-level linear programming problem by minimizing deviational variables.
The related deviational variables are not zero ([d.sup.+.sub.17] = 12,095, [d.sup.+.sub.18] = 2,500, [d.sup.+.sub.19] = 500, [d.sup.+.sub.20] = 700, and [d.sup.+.sub.21] = 3,300).
"The Standard Deviational Ellipse: An Updated Tool for Spatial Description." Geografiska Annaler 53B: 28-39.
However, the standard deviational ellipse for the 2001 centered value indicated that the majority of the homicide incidents drifted to the east coast, and the reporting population was more geographically dispersed than the reports of homicide.
The GP model utilized has a single priority level and the weights assigned to the deviational variables are all 1.
The matrices of RLP models are transformed to WGP models by introducing: (a) two deviational variables for each planning goal to convert an inequality into an equality; and (b) the conversion of resource availability limits into targets in accordance with the aspirations of the representative groups of farms.
Milton's epic blank verse is in a class by itself - radically enjambed, and following some deviational patterns hardly known earlier, unless in late Shakespeare.
The latter include maps which depict standard deviational ellipses or crime hotspots, derived from point distribution maps.
The usual assumption that all variables are greater than or equal to zero is made, necessitating the use of two separate variables referred to as positive and negative deviational variables.
The reliability of a deviational ipsative scale ([r.sub.iv.iv]) will be equal to the reliability of the difference scores [X.sub.v-m], where [X.sub.v] is a person's normative scale score and [X.sub.m] is that person's mean normative score (averaged across all the scales):
To quantify this prioritization, each goal is expressed as an equation and a deviational variable(s) assigned to it.
[d.sup.+.sub.grf], [d.sup.-.sub.grf] = Positive and negative deviational variables for goal g associated with machine type r in family f.