Deviation

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deviation

[‚dēv·ē′ā·shən]
(engineering)
The difference between the actual value of a controlled variable and the desired value corresponding to the set point.
(evolution)
Evolutionary differentiation involving interpolation of new stages in the ancestral pattern of morphogenesis.
(optics)
The angle between the incident ray on an object or optical system and the emergent ray, following reflection, refraction, or diffraction. Also known as angle of deviation.
(petroleum engineering)
During a drilling operation, the inclination of the borehole from the vertical.
(statistics)
The difference between any given number in a set and the mean average of those numbers.

Deviation

 

in artillery, an accidental phenomenon not allowed for in the laws of dispersion, by which shells (bullets) veer away from the mean trajectory expected under the given firing conditions. Causes of deviation may be the mechanical disruption of the movement of the shell in the bore (for example, separation of the shell from the rifling grooves) or in the air (for example, a defect in the stabilizer fins or other parts), as well as a chance sharp change in weather conditions during the flight of the shell.


Deviation

 

in biology, a variety of phylembryogenesis in which a change in the development of an organ arises in the middle stages of its formation and results in a change in the structure of the organ in the adult organism, compared with the same organ in its ancestors. For example, in the middle stages of development the epidermal part of the scale buds of reptiles undergoes keratinization, not ossification (as in sharks). The term “deviation” was introduced by the German scientist F. Müller (1864).


Deviation

 

the most common measure of dispersion, that is, deviation from the mean, in mathematical statistics and theory of probability. In the statistical sense, deviation

is the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviations of the values Xi from their arithmetic mean

In the theory of probability the deviation (variance) of a random variable X is called the expected value E(X - mx)2 of the square of the deviation of X from its expected value mx =E(X). The deviation of a random variable X is denoted by D(X) or by σ2). The square root of the deviation (that is, if the deviation is σ2) is called standard deviation.

For a random variable X with continuous probability distribution, characterized by probability density p(x), deviation is calculated by the formula

where

The following theorem has great significance in the theory of probability: the deviation of the sum of independent terms is equal to the sum of their deviations. No less important is Chebyshev’s inequality, which allows us to evaluate the probability of large deviations of the random variable X from its expected value.

REFERENCE

Gnedenko, B. V. Kurs teorii veroiatnostei, 5th ed. Moscow, 1969.

deviation

deviation
deviation
i. The angular difference between a magnetic and a compass heading. It is a compass error caused by the compass magnet attempting to align with the aircraft's local magnetic field. The deviation error changes with the aircraft heading and the latitude. It is measured in degrees east (+) or west (−), depending on whether the north-seeking end of the compass needle lies to the east or west of magnetic north.
ii. The angle between the wind and the pressure gradient.
iii. In frequency modulation, the amount the carrier increases or decreases when modulated.
vi A departure from a current clearance, such as an off-course maneuver, to avoid bad weather or turbulence.
v A variation from set rules and regulations. Where specifically authorized in the regulation and requested by the pilot, ATC (air traffic control) may permit pilots to deviate from certain regulations.
vi. In flight, a sudden excursion from the normal flight path.
vii. The distance by which a weapon misses its target.
References in periodicals archive ?
Such obscurantism necessarily translates "unorthodoxy" as being equivalent to "deviancy", thus stigmatizing the followers of the particular unorthodox sect as "deviationists" liable to excommunication.
The northern state of Perlis has been the latest one to introduce the new "Islamic Faith Bill 2000" which enables shari'a courts to prosecute deviationist Islamic teachings and detain offenders in rehabilitation centres for up to a year.
And indeed, much of the specific politicization of language policy in the period under discussion seems unique to the Soviet Union and its closest satellites, where advocacy of a particular linguistic approach could lead to one's being branded as a leftwing deviationist or a bourgeois nationalist, and to imprisonment.
Koresh's followers were essentially deviationist Seventh Day Adventists, not some random cult inspired by extraterrestrials.
In the following pages, however, I intend to illustrate another corollary of the "deviationist" view of language: namely, that much of Valenzuela's writing is generated by the literal interpretation of tropes, a strategy that exploits the gap between the proper and the figurative meaning of words and that implies the subversion of representation.
In the course of the student troubles at LSE in 1968, he emerged as a fearless and yet sympathetic critic of the students, making merciless fun of their radical chic, which he was entitled to do as someone who had spent years in a Hungarian prison as a "right-wing deviationist" before escaping to the West in 1956.
Prejudice, then, is a kind of intellectual heresy, a deviationist thinking; prejudice constitutes identity in terms of the group.
To deny Mosaic authorship would place Novak outside of the Historical tradition, while the denial of the singular authorship of Isaiah, while "deviationist," is not strictly speaking heretical, and signals Novak's commitment to critical/historical, as well as traditional/halakhic, discourse.
For Sendero Luminoso, such organizations are deviationist and therefore worthy of destruction.
421] "main deviation from this [classical/neoclassical] tradition was the neglect of the long run." Since the long-run versus the short-run neutrality of money is emphatically distinguished by Niehans, it follows logically that classical adherence to money neutrality in the long term sets Keynes apart as a deviationist from the classical fold.
Ranjitsinh is that he is a deviationist. Those familiar with political vocabulary know that this is usually a loaded term, used for persons who for have indulged in right or left deviation from a certain path, he added.
(33) He recalls his sendoff in New York: "The farewell party arranged by my friends included the cream of the intelligentsia, with not a deviationist in the company.