Deviation

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deviation

[‚dēv·ē′ā·shən]
(engineering)
The difference between the actual value of a controlled variable and the desired value corresponding to the set point.
(evolution)
Evolutionary differentiation involving interpolation of new stages in the ancestral pattern of morphogenesis.
(optics)
The angle between the incident ray on an object or optical system and the emergent ray, following reflection, refraction, or diffraction. Also known as angle of deviation.
(petroleum engineering)
During a drilling operation, the inclination of the borehole from the vertical.
(statistics)
The difference between any given number in a set and the mean average of those numbers.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Deviation

 

in artillery, an accidental phenomenon not allowed for in the laws of dispersion, by which shells (bullets) veer away from the mean trajectory expected under the given firing conditions. Causes of deviation may be the mechanical disruption of the movement of the shell in the bore (for example, separation of the shell from the rifling grooves) or in the air (for example, a defect in the stabilizer fins or other parts), as well as a chance sharp change in weather conditions during the flight of the shell.


Deviation

 

in biology, a variety of phylembryogenesis in which a change in the development of an organ arises in the middle stages of its formation and results in a change in the structure of the organ in the adult organism, compared with the same organ in its ancestors. For example, in the middle stages of development the epidermal part of the scale buds of reptiles undergoes keratinization, not ossification (as in sharks). The term “deviation” was introduced by the German scientist F. Müller (1864).


Deviation

 

the most common measure of dispersion, that is, deviation from the mean, in mathematical statistics and theory of probability. In the statistical sense, deviation

is the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviations of the values Xi from their arithmetic mean

In the theory of probability the deviation (variance) of a random variable X is called the expected value E(X - mx)2 of the square of the deviation of X from its expected value mx =E(X). The deviation of a random variable X is denoted by D(X) or by σ2). The square root of the deviation (that is, if the deviation is σ2) is called standard deviation.

For a random variable X with continuous probability distribution, characterized by probability density p(x), deviation is calculated by the formula

where

The following theorem has great significance in the theory of probability: the deviation of the sum of independent terms is equal to the sum of their deviations. No less important is Chebyshev’s inequality, which allows us to evaluate the probability of large deviations of the random variable X from its expected value.

REFERENCE

Gnedenko, B. V. Kurs teorii veroiatnostei, 5th ed. Moscow, 1969.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

deviation

deviation
deviation
i. The angular difference between a magnetic and a compass heading. It is a compass error caused by the compass magnet attempting to align with the aircraft's local magnetic field. The deviation error changes with the aircraft heading and the latitude. It is measured in degrees east (+) or west (−), depending on whether the north-seeking end of the compass needle lies to the east or west of magnetic north.
ii. The angle between the wind and the pressure gradient.
iii. In frequency modulation, the amount the carrier increases or decreases when modulated.
vi A departure from a current clearance, such as an off-course maneuver, to avoid bad weather or turbulence.
v A variation from set rules and regulations. Where specifically authorized in the regulation and requested by the pilot, ATC (air traffic control) may permit pilots to deviate from certain regulations.
vi. In flight, a sudden excursion from the normal flight path.
vii. The distance by which a weapon misses its target.
An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
References in periodicals archive ?
Taken together, the fatwas prompted the federal government to ban Arqam on the basis of the organization's allegedly "deviant and deviationist" character.
deviationists." At the same time, as a counterweight against
The strategy of winning by name-calling is as old as Lenin's calling his opponents "deviationists" and as current as the civil rights establishment's calling Clarence Thomas an Uncle Tom.
"Can you believe they are forcing us to speak in the language of intellectuals, which has nothing in common with our Komsomol language!" Those who reproach them are then accused of being deviationists, out of touch with the masses'.(123) And according to another commentator, the response of those rebuked for crude language was: 'Maybe our language is rather crude and primitive, but we are not intelligenty, we are illiterate proletarians who haven't studied at university'.(124) Those who resisted the pressures to speak 'properly' clearly resented the elitism of the Bolshevik Kulturtrager, and the tactic they used against them was to accuse them meshchanstvo.
Thus, it can be suggested that as distinct from the faithful and the skeptics there may be a third category of jurists who, very roughly, might be described as the "progressive deviationists." (106) They are united in a couple of beliefs.
Lake, (Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1995): 81-104; "Lady Friends" and "Sexual Deviationists": Lesbians and the Law in Australia, 1920s-1950s,' Sex, Power and Justice: Historical Perspectives on the Law in Australia, 1788-1990, ed.
This applied not only to "right-wing deviationists, reactionaries, or monarchists" during the battles with the White Army and the civil war within Russia, but to other liberals, leftists, socialists, and social democrats - anyone who threatened his authority or questioned his policies.
Having veered dramatically to the right, they and their apologists view those who continue to assert the traditional NDP positions as left deviationists. For advancing the same arguments against the NDP government as he made previously against the Socred governments, Rosenbluth was removed as the chair of the BCNDP Economic Policy Committee.
Muslim scientist-philosophers who found inspiration in their Greek predecessors are termed "Hellenists," deviationists who strayed from true Islamic science by not seeking the fulfillment of their wisdom in Quran and Hadith.